As more and more of the world's data is created, stored, and manipulated online, it is sometimes crucial to verify when a digital document or record was created or last modified. Ideally, any time-stamping procedures to do this should depend only on the data in the document in question, and should not be susceptible to tampering—either with the data, or with the time and date.
To be precise, and to fix our vocabulary, a time-stamping system consists of two procedures: a certification procedure, which produces for any digital record a time-stamp certificate attesting to the time of certification; and a validation procedure, which checks whether or not a given record–certificate pair is valid. Naturally, the aim is to ensure that the only pairs that will pass the validation test are those consisting of a record and a correctly computed time-stamp certificate for that record.
In many situations, a time-stamp certificate for a document will be more important as an attestation...
- Adams, C., P. Cain, D. Pinkas, and R. Zuccherato (2001). “Internet X.509 public key infrastructure time stamp protocols (TSP).” Internet Engineering Task Force, IETF RFC 3161, http://www.ietf.org/
- Baric, N. and B. Pfitzmann (1997). Collision-free accumulators and fail-stop signature schemes without trees.” Advances in Cryptology—EUROCRYPT'97, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1233, ed. W. Fumy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 480–494.Google Scholar
- Bayer, D., S. Haber, and W.S. Stornetta (1993). “Improving the efficiency and reliability of digital time-stamping.” Sequences II: Methods in Communication, Security, and Computer Science, eds. R.M. Capocelli, A. De Santis, and U. Vaccaro. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 329–334. (Proceedings of the Sequences Workshop, Positano, Italy, 1991.)Google Scholar
- Benaloh, J. and M. de Mare (1991). “Efficient broadcast time-stamping.” Technical Report TR-MCS-91-1. Clarkson University Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.Google Scholar
- Benaloh, J. and M. de Mare (1993). “One-way accumulators: A decentralized alternative to digital signatures.” Advances in Cryptology—EUROCRYPT'93, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 765, ed. Tor Helleseth. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 274–285.Google Scholar
- Buldas, A., P. Laud, H. Lipmaa, and J. Villemson (1998). “Time-stamping with binary linking schemes.” Advances in Cryptology—CRYPTO'98, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1462, ed. Hugo Krawczyk. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 486–501.Google Scholar
- Haber, S. and W.S. Stornetta (1992). “Method for secure time-stamping of digital documents.” U.S. Patent 5,136,647, issued August 1992; Re. 34,954, reissued May 1995.Google Scholar
- Haber, S. and W.S. Stornetta (1992). “Digital document time-stamping with catenate certificate.” U.S. Patent 5,136,646, August 1992.Google Scholar
- International Organization for Standardization (2002–2003). Information technology—Security techniques—Time-stamping services. ISO/IEC 18014 (parts 1–3), http://www.iso.ch/
- Massias, H., X. Serret Avila, and J.-J. Quisquater (1999). “Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal trust requirements.” Twentieth Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, eds. P. Vanroose, A. Barbé, E.C. van der Meulen. May 1999, 79–86.Google Scholar
- Merkle, R. (1980). “Protocols for public key cryptosystems.” Proceedings of the 1980 Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 122–133.Google Scholar
- Nyberg, K. (1996). “Commutativity in cryptography.” Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Functional Analysis at Trier University, ed. Walter de Gruyter. 331–342.Google Scholar
- Sander, T. (1999). “Efficient accumulators without trapdoor.” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Security, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1726, eds. Vijay Varadharajan and Yi Mu. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 252–262.Google Scholar
- Surety. http://www.surety.com