Longhorned Fairy Moths (Lepidoptera: Adelidae)
Longhorned fairy moths, family Adelidae, comprise 295 species worldwide, but most are Palearctic (143 sp.); actual fauna probably exceeds 400 species. The family is in the superfamily Incurvarioidea, in the section Incurvariina, of division Monotrysia, infraorder Heteroneura. There are two subfamilies: Nematopogoninae and Adelinae. Adults minute to small (4 to 29 mm wingspan), with head very rough-scaled and with large eyes; haustellum reduced, scaled; labial palpi upcurved (sometimes strongly scaled); maxillary palpi 2 to 3-segmented (rarely 4 to 5-segmented); antennae extremely long (often 2× wing lengths) in males, but of average length in females, although often thickened in both sexes toward bases. Maculation is often very colorful, with iridescent markings, and with wings rather elongated. Adults are usually diurnal but a few are crepuscular. Larvae are leafminers, but in later instars change to casebearers. Host plants include a number of different plant families.
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