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  • Living reference work
  • © 2020

International Encyclopedia of Civil Society


(view affiliations)
  • More than 200 new entries to this second edition along with updates to existing entries

  • Continues to create and communicate a single, cohesive language and framework for understanding this interdisciplinary field

  • An international group of contributors ensures that the field will be covered from a global perspective

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Table of contents (185 entries)

  1. Acampadas

    • Ramón A. Feenstra
  2. Addams, Jane

    • Karun K. Singh
  3. ADDES

    • Edith Archambault
  4. Advocacy

    • John D. Clark
  5. Altruism

    • Anne Birgitta Pessi
  6. Benefit Corporation

    • Dana Brakman Reiser
  7. Benefits Theory of Nonprofit Finance

    • Dennis R. Young, Elizabeth A. M. Searing
  8. Blended Value

    • Jed Emerson
  9. Boulding, Kenneth Ewart

    • David Horton Smith
  10. Bremner, Robert Hamlett

    • Tullia B. Hamilton
  11. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation

    • Raquel Campos Franco
  12. Cause-Related Marketing

    • Silke Boenigk, Peter Schubert
  13. Charity and Religion

    • Kerry O’Halloran
  14. Charity Law

    • Myles McGregor-Lowndes, Kerry O’Halloran
  15. Charity Rating Services

    • David A. Campbell
  16. Charity, History of

    • Gabriele Lingelbach
  17. Citizenship

    • Dieter Gosewinkel, Jeldrik T. B. Grups
  18. Civic Agency

    • Alan Fowler, Kees Biekart

About this book

More than a decade after the concept for the first edition of the International Encyclopedia of Civil Society emerged, civil society remains as contested and strategically located a concept as it was then, and, therefore, a very fruitful and intellectually lively field of research that has prompted examination of a variety of new aspects.


Moreover, civil society and the people and organizations involved in it have been affected over the past decade by numerous political, economic, and social changes and events that have left their mark in new relationships, new approaches, and new actors. These developments necessitate updating of the substantive regional entries on civil society and social capital and on philanthropy. Furthermore, these developments have likely affected legal and regulatory frameworks affecting civil society and various types of organizations and approaches.


Additionally, research undertaken and published since the first edition has extended and deepened our understanding of many topics, from more general concerns such as definitions and theories of civil society to more specific issues such as those relating to organizational management.


  • Nonprofit
  • Social Capital
  • Volunteer Organizations
  • non-governmental organizations
  • voluntary sector

Editors and Affiliations

  • Hamburg, Germany

    Regina A. List

  • Hertie School of Governance, Berlin, Germany

    Helmut K. Anheier

  • Schar school, George Mason University, ARLINGTON, USA

    Stefan Toepler

About the editors


Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: International Encyclopedia of Civil Society

  • Editors: Regina A. List, Helmut K. Anheier, Stefan Toepler

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Springer Cham

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Biomedicine & Life Sciences, Reference Module Biomedical and Life Sciences

  • Topics: Biotechnology, Political Science, Business and Management, Public Health, Economics