Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxi
  2. Toxins from Microalgae, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteria

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Valentin A. Stonik, Inna V. Stonik
      Pages 3-21
    3. Begoña Ben-Gigirey, Andrew David Turner, Ana Gago-Martínez
      Pages 43-69
    4. Richard J. Lewis, Irina Vetter
      Pages 71-92
    5. Valentina Brovedani, Marco Pelin, Elisabetta D’Orlando, Mark Poli
      Pages 113-127
    6. Marco Pelin, Silvio Sosa, Aurelia Tubaro
      Pages 129-145
    7. Silvio Sosa, Aurelia Tubaro
      Pages 147-168
    8. Philipp Hess, Michael J. Twiner, Jane Kilcoyne, Silvio Sosa
      Pages 169-191
    9. Jordi Molgó, Evelyne Benoit, Rómulo Aráoz, Armen Zakarian, Bogdan I. Iorga
      Pages 193-217
    10. Susanna Vichi, Franca M. Buratti, Emanuela Testai
      Pages 219-238
    11. Yuji Nagashima, Osamu Arakawa
      Pages 259-284
  3. Toxins from Invertebrates

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 285-285
    2. André C. Morandini, Márcio R. Custódio, Antonio C. Marques
      Pages 287-316
    3. Sébastien Dutertre, John Griffin, Richard J. Lewis
      Pages 327-340
    4. Hyunkyoung Lee, Young Chul Kwon, Euikyung Kim
      Pages 341-358
    5. Dušan Šuput
      Pages 359-379
  4. Toxins from Vertebrates and Miscellaneous Toxins

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 403-403
    2. Vidal Haddad Jr., Carla Lima, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira
      Pages 421-426
    3. Vidal Haddad Jr., Carla Lima, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira
      Pages 427-443
    4. Vidal Haddad Jr., Carla Lima, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira
      Pages 445-451
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 471-476

About this book


This book presents the structure of the main toxins of aquatic origin, their distribution, producing species and vectors, their mechanisms of action, the clinical aspects of envenomation in humans, their effects in laboratory or wild animals, their toxicokinetic properties, including the relevant treatment, detection methods and regulatory aspects for management. The work also presents the main species associated with the injuries, poisonings their toxins, mechanism of action and the clinical aspects of the envenomations by aquatic animals and discusses the actual measures utilized in the first aid and hospital treatments. Marine toxins such as palytoxins, brevetoxins, saxitoxin, ciguatoxins, okadaic acid, azaspiracid toxins, equinatoxins are also dealt with in this volume. These toxins can be lethal as well as having a complex and large molecular structure and display mechanisms by which they act very specifically on targets, receptors or on critical body proteins.

The marine and freshwater environments are the new frontiers of humanity, but the increase of economic and tourist activities provoke nasty encounters between aquatic animals and humans. The main victims are swimmers, professional and sportive fishermen, surfers and scuba divers as well as people working in related fields. The identification, knowledge and treatment of envenomations caused by venomous and poisonous animals are not adequate and the prevention of injuries still is not possible. Additionally, the immense potential of the pharmacologic effects of their toxins is not fully explored. Toxins of venomous aquatic animals can cause proteolysis, myotoxicity, hemotoxicity (mainly hemolysis), cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity. The neurotoxicity is generally associated with toxins of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, present in poisonous and/or contaminated invertebrates and fish.


Drug Development Drug Discovery Toxin Toxinology Venom

Editors and affiliations

  • P. Gopalakrishnakone
    • 1
  • Vidal Haddad Jr.
    • 2
  • Aurelia Tubaro
    • 3
  • Euikyung Kim
    • 4
  • William R. Kem
    • 5
  1. 1.Dept of AnatomyNatl Univ of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Universidade Estadual PaulistaBotucatuBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Life SciencesUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly
  4. 4.College of Veterinary MedicineGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuKorea (Republic of)
  5. 5.College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Bibliographic information