Skip to main content

Imaging Surface and Submembranous Structures in Living Cells With the Atomic Force Microscope

Notes and Tricks

  • Protocol
  • 1456 Accesses

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB,volume 242)

Abstract

In 1986, Binnig et al. (1) revolutionized microscopy through the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM). Subsequently, commercial instruments of this new imaging technique began to appear in the 5 yr after its discovery. In the early 1990s, Henderson et al. (2) and Radmacher et al. (3) both illustrated the potential of the instrument to image biological preparations in real time under nearby physiological conditions with nanometer resolution. From that point onwards the AFM has attracted biologists and the number of publications describing biological applications of AFM have grown rapidly (4).

Keywords

  • Atomic Force Microscope
  • Atomic Force Microscope Imaging
  • Inverted Microscope
  • Atomic Force Microscope Study
  • Liver Endothelial Cell

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Protocol
USD   49.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-647-9:201
  • Chapter length: 16 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-59259-647-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.

Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more

References

  1. Binnig, G., Quate, C. F., and Gerber, C. H. (1986) Atomic force microscope. Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930–933.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Henderson, E., Haydon, P. G., and Sakaguchi, D. S. (1992) Actin filament dynamics in living glial cells imaged by atomic force microscopy. Science 257, 944–1946.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Radmacher, M., Tillman, R. W., Fritz, M., and Gaub, H. E. (1992) From molecules to cells: imaging soft samples with the atomic force microscope. Science 257, 1900–1905.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Lillehei, P. T. and Bottomley, L. A. (2000) Scanning probe microscopy. Anal. Chem. 72, 189R–196R.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Nagao, E. and Dvorak, J. A. (1998) An integrated approach to the study of living cells by atomic force microscopy. J. Microsc. 191, 8–19.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Radmacher, M. (1997) Measuring the elastic properties of biological samples with the AFM. IEEE. Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 16, 47–57.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Braet, F., Seynaeve, C., De Zanger, R., and Wisse, E. (1998) Imaging surface and submembranous structures with the atomic force microscope: A study on living cancer cells, fibroblasts and macrophages. J. Microsc. 190, 328–338.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Braet, F., De Zanger, R., Seynaeve, C., Baekeland, M., and Wisse, E. (2001) A comparative atomic force microscopy study on living skin fibroblasts and liver endothelial cells. J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 50, 283–290.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Braet, F., Vermijlen, D., Bossuyt, V., De Zanger, R., and Wisse, E. (2001) Early detection of cytotoxic events between hepatic natural killer cells and colon carcinoma cells as probed with the atomic force microscope. Ultramicroscopy 89, 265–273.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Braet, F., De Zanger, R., Kämmer, S., and Wisse, E. (1997) Noncontact versus contact imaging: An atomic force microscopic study on hepatic endothelial cells in vitro. Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 8, 162–167.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Freshney, I. (1987) Measurement of cytotoxicity and viability, in Culture of animal cells—A Manual of Basic Techniques (Freshney, I., ed.), A. Liss, New York, pp. 245–256.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Braet, F., Kalle, W. H. J., De Zanger, R., de Grooth, B. G., Raap, A. K., Tanke, H. J., et al. (1996) Comparative atomic force and scanning electron microscopy: An investigation on fenestrated endothelial cells in vitro. J. Microsc. 181, 10–17.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Braet, F., Rotsch, C., Wisse, E., and Radmacher, M. (1998) Comparison of fixed and living liver endothelial cells by atomic force microscopy. Appl. Phys. A 66, S575–S578.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Weyn, B., Kalle, W., Kumar-Singh, S., Van Marck, E., Tanke, H., and Jacob, W. (1998) Atomic force microscopy: Influence of air drying and fixation on the morphology and viscoelasticity of cultured cells. J. Microsc. 189, 172–180.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Schaus, S. S. and Henderson, E. R. (1997) Cell viability and probe-cell membrane interactions of XR1 glial cells imaged by atomic force microscopy. Biophys. J. 73, 1205–1214.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Braet, F., De Zanger, R., Kalle, W. H. J., Raap, A. K., Tanke, H. J., and Wisse, E. (1996) Comparative scanning, transmission and atomic force microscopy of the microtubular cytoskeleton in fenestrated endothelial cells. Scan. Microsc. 10, 225–236.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kalle, W. H. J., Braet, F., Raap, A. K., de Grooth, B. G., Tanke, H., and Wisse, E. (1997) Imaging of the membrane surface of sinusoidal rat liver endothelial cells by atomic force microscopy, in Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid 6 (Wisse, E., Knook, D. L., Balabaud, C., eds.), Kupffer Cell Foundation, Leiden, pp. 94–96.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Braet, F., De Zanger, R., and Wisse, E. (1997) Drying cells for SEM, AFM and TEM by hexamethyldisilazane: A study on hepatic endothelial cells. J. Microsc. 186, 84–87.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Rotsch, C., Braet, F., Wisse, E., and Radmacher, M. (1997) AFM imaging and elasticity measurements on living rat liver Kupffer cells. Cell Biol. Int. 21, 685–696.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2004 Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

About this protocol

Cite this protocol

Braet, F., Wisse, E. (2004). Imaging Surface and Submembranous Structures in Living Cells With the Atomic Force Microscope. In: Braga, P.C., Ricci, D. (eds) Atomic Force Microscopy. Methods in Molecular Biology™, vol 242. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-647-9:201

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-647-9:201

  • Publisher Name: Humana Press

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-58829-094-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-59259-647-8

  • eBook Packages: Springer Protocols