Clonal Propagation of Woody Species

  • Indra S. Harry
  • Trevor A. Thorpe
Part of the Methods In Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 111)


Tissue-culture technology is widely used for the vegetative propagation of selected plants in agriculture and horticulture and, to a lesser extent, in forestry. The objective is to produce large numbers of plants with uniform quality. Historically, commercial applications of this technology were restricted to herbaceous plants. However, for the last two decades, considerable success has been obtained with woody plants (1,2). These include both gymnosperms and angiosperms, i.e., softwoods and hardwoods, and both trees and shrubs. Economically, these trees are extremely important for wood products, including lumber, pulp and paper, forestry plantations, and reforestation. Large-scale clonal systems can be an asset for selected high-performance trees, and reliable protocols are necessary for further genetic manipulation. However, a major problem in the propagation of woody plants is that most success is achieved with juvenile tissue and not from proven mature trees (3,4).


Activate Charcoal Shoot Elongation Axillary Shoot Juvenile Tissue Eastern White Cedar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Zimmerman, R H. (1986) Regeneration in woody ornamentals and fruit trees, in Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, vol. 3, (Vasil, I K., ed), Academic, New York, pp. 243–258Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thorpe, T. A, Harry, I S, and Kumar P. P (1991) Application of micropropagation to forestry, in Micropropagation (Debergh, P. C. and Zimmerman, R. H, eds), Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 311–336Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harry, I S. and Thorpe, T A (1990) Special problems and prospects in the propagation of woody species, in Plant Aging Basic and Applied Approaches, (Rodriguez, R., Tamés, R S, and Durzan, D. J., eds), Plenum, New York, pp 67–74.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dunstan, D. I. and Thorpe, T. A. (1986) Regeneration in forest trees, in Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics in Plants, vol. 3 (Vasil, I K, ed.), Academic, New York, pp. 233–241Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thorpe, T. A. and Patel, K R (1984) Clonal propagation: Adventitious buds, in Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, vol. 1 (Vasil, I. K, ed.), Academic, New York, pp. 49–60.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahuja, M R. (1987) In vitro propagation of poplar and aspen, in Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry, vol 3 (Bonga, J. M. and Durzan, D J., eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 207–223.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harry, I S. and Thorpe, T. A. (1994) In vitro methods for forest trees, in Plant Cell and Tissue Culture (Vasil, I. K. and Thorpe, T. A., eds.), Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 539–560.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harry, I S., Thompson, M. R., Lu, C-Y, and Thorpe, T. A. (1987) In vitro plantlet formation from embryonic explants of eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentals L). Tree Physiol 3, 273–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nour, K. A and Thorpe, T. A. (1993) In vitro shoot multiplication of eastern white cedar. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 29, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lubrano, L (1992) Micropropagation of Poplars (Populus spp), in Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry—High-Tech and Micropropagation II, vol 18 (Bajaj, Y P S., ed), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 151–176.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thorpe, T A (1995) Aspen Micropropagation Part of a report Aspen Decay and Stain and Genetic Fingerprinting of Clones, Report A5012, Canadian Forest Service, and Land and Forest Services, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Quoirin, M. and Lepoivre, P. (1977) Étude de milieux adaptes aux culturés in vitro de Prunus Acta Hortic. 78, 437–442.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murashige, T and Skoog, F. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures Physiol Plant 15, 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aitken-Chnstie, J and Thorpe, T. A. (1984) Clonal propagation. Gymnosperms, in Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, vol 1, Laboratory Procedures and Their Applications (Vasil, I K, ed), Academic, New York, pp 82–95Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gamborg, O. L., Murashige, T, Thorpe, T A., and Vasil, I K, (1976) Plant Tissue Culture Media. In Vitro 12, 473–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chandler, S. F. and Thorpe, T A (1985) Culture of plant cells’ techniques and growth medium, in Cell Biology, vol C1, Techniques in Setting Up and Maintenance of Tissue and Cell Cultures, C112 (Kurstak, E., ed.), Elsevier, Ireland, pp. 1–21Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gamborg, O L and Phillips, G C (eds.) (1995) Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture—Fundamental Methods, Section 1 Springer, Berlin, pp 3–42Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Biondi, S. and Thorpe, T. A. (1981) Requirements for a tissue culture facility, in Plant Tissue Culture Methods and Applications in Agriculture (Thorpe, T A, ed.), Academic, New York, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bhojwani, S S. and Razdan, M K (1983) Developments in Crop Science, vol 5, Plant Tissue Culture Theory and Practice Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 502Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brown, D C W. and Thorpe, T. A. (1984) Organization of a plant tissue culture laboratory, in Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, vol 1, Laboratory Procedures and Their Applications (Vasil, I K, ed), Academic, New York, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thorpe, T A and Harry, I. S (1991) Clonal propagation of conifers, in Plant Tissue Culture Manual C3 (Lindsey, K., ed.), Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 1–16Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    von Arnold, S and Eriksson, T (1981) In vitro studies of adventitious shoot formation in Pinus contorta Can J. Botany 59, 870–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bornman, C H. (1983) Possibilities and constraints in the regeneration of trees from cotyledonary needles of Picea abies in vitro Physiol Plant 80, 534–540Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schenk, R U and Hildebrandt, A. C (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures Can J Botany 50, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Biondi, S. and Thorpe, T A (1982) Growth regulator effects, metabolic changes, and respiration during short initiations in cultured cotyledon explants of Pinus radiata Bot Gaz 143, 20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martinéz Pulido C, Harry, I S, and Thorpe, T. A. (1990) In vitro regeneration of plantlets of Canary Island pine (Pinus cananensis) Can J Forest Res 20, 1200–1211Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rumary, C. and Thorpe, T. A. (1984) Plantlet formation in black and white spruce I. In vitro techniques. Can. J. Forest Res 14, 10–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mohammed, G. H. and Vidaver, W E (1988) Root production and plantlet development in tissue-cultured conifers. Plant Cell Tiss Org. Cult 14, 137–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pienk, R L M (1987) In Vitro Culture of Higher Plants Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gamborg, O L, Miller, R A., and Ojima, K. (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50, 151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lloyd, G. and McCown, B. (1980) Commercially feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmm latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. Int Plant Propagators Society Combined Proceedings 30, 421–427Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chalupa, V. (1987) European Hardwoods, in Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry, vol 3 (Bonga, I M and Durzan, D J, eds), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 224–246.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    McCown, D. D. and McCown, B. H (1987) North American hardwoods, in Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry, vol. 3 (Bonga, J. M. and Durzan, D. J., eds), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 247–260Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Indra S. Harry
    • 1
  • Trevor A. Thorpe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations