Indica Rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64)

  • Karabi Datta
  • Swapan Kumar Datta
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 343)


Rice is the world’s most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, β-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

Key Words

Indica-type rice Agrobacterium-mediated transformation Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetic engineering marker gene 


  1. 1.
    Datta, S. K., Peterhans, A., Datta, K., and Potrykus, I. (1990) Genetically engineered fertile Indica-rice plants recovered from protoplasts. Bio/Technology 8, 736–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lin, W., Anuratha, C. S., Datta, K., Potrykus, I., Muthukrishnan, S., and Datta, S. K. (1995) Genetic engineering of rice for resistance to sheath blight. Bio/Technology 13, 686–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Datta, K., Vasquez, A., Tu, J., et al. (1998) Constitutive and tissue-specific differential expression of cryIA(b) gene in transgenic rice plants conferring resistance to rice insect pest. Theor. Appl. Genet. 97, 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garg, A. K., Kim, J. K., Owens, T. G., et al. (2002) Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 15898–15903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sakamoto, A. and Murata, N. (2000) Genetic engineering of glycinebetaine synthesis in plants, current status and implications for enhancement of stress tolerance. J. Exp. Bot. 51, 81–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Datta, S. K. (2004) Rice biotechnology: a need for developing countries. AgBioForum 7, 30–34.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Vasconcelos, M., Datta, K., Oliva, N., et al. (2003) Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in transgenic rice with the ferritin gene. Plant Sci. 64(3), 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Datta, K., Baisakh, N., Oliva, N., et al. (2003) Bioengineered ‘golden’ indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems. Plant Biotechnol. J. 1, 81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ye, X., Al-Babili, S., Klöti, A., et al. (2000) Engineering the provitamin A (β-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid free) rice endosperm. Science 287, 303–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baisakh N, and Datta, S. K. (2004) Metabolic pathway engineering for nutrition enrichment, in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Plant Organelles (Daniell, H. and Chase, C. D., eds.), Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 527–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Peterhans, A., Datta, S. K., Datta, K., Godall, G. H., Potrykus, I., and Paszkowski, J. (1990) Recognition of efficiency of Dicotylendoneae-specific promoter and RNA processing signals in rice. Mol. Gen. Genet. 221, 362–368.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Datta, S. K., Datta, K., Soltanifar, N., Donn, G., and Potrykus, I. (1992) Herbicide-resistant Indica rice plants from IRRI breeding line IR72 after PEG-mediated transformation of protoplasts. Plant Mol. Biol. 20, 619–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parkhi, V., Rai, M., Tan, J., et al. (2005) Molecular characterization of markerfree transgenic events accumulating differential expression of carotenoids in seed endosperm of indica rice. Mol. Genet. Genomics 274, 325–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hiei, Y., Ohta, S., Komari, T., and Kumashiro, T. (1994) Efficient transformation of rice (Oryza sativa) mediated by Agrobacterium and sequence analysis of the boundaries of the T-DNA. Plant J. 6, 271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Datta, K., Oliva, N., Torrizo, L., Abrigo, E., Khush, G. S., and Datta, S. K. (1996) Genetic transformation of Indica and Japonica rice by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Rice Genet. Newslett. 13, 36–139.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Datta, K., Koukolíkovà-Nicola, Z., Baisakh, N., Oliva, N., and Datta, S. K. (2000) Agrobacterium-mediated engineering for sheath blight resistance of indica rice cultivars from different ecosystems. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100, 832–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chilton, M. D., Currier, T. C., Farrand, S. K., Bendich, A. J., and Nester, E. W. (1974) Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA and PS8 bacteriophage DNA not deleted in crown gall tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 3672–3676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chu, C. C., Wang, C. S., Sun, C. C., Hsu, C., Yin, K. C., and Chu, C. Y. (1975) Establishment of an efficient medium for anther culture of rice through comparative experiments on the nitrogen sources. Sci. Sinica 18, 659–668.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoshida, S., Forno, D. A., Cock, J. H., and Gomez, K. A. (1976) Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ho, N. H., Baisakh, N., Oliva, N., et al. (2005) Translational fusion hybrid Bt genes confer resistance against yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Walker) in transgenic elite Vietnamese rice (Oryza sativa L.) (communicated).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karabi Datta
  • Swapan Kumar Datta

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations