Advertisement

Nuclear Transfer in Cattle

  • Gottfried Brem
  • Manzoor A. Nowshari
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 254)

Abstract

For decades, a dream of animal breeders has been to clone (make exact genetic copies of) outstanding animals. This was first achieved by splitting embryos (1); however, with this technique, only a few animals of the same genetic origin could be produced (2). The second approach, which seemed to be more promising, was the embryo reconstruction using a single nucleus from an embryo to an enucleated one-cell embryo. This technique was based on an idea proposed by Spemann in 1938 (3). With only few exceptions, experiments on frogs and fish provided scientific evidence that all the cells in the body of an animal appear to contain the same genetic information, being contained in DNA, a molecule located in the nucleus of cells. Thus, within an animal, the DNA sequence in the mammary cells is identical to skin cells. These cells differ in their appearance and function because they utilize different parts of the genetic information, not because the total amount of information differs. Furthermore, all these cells have genetic information present in the one-cell embryo that develop into the animal. Therefore, if the nucleus of any of these cells were used to replace the genetic information in any one-cell embryo, an exact genetic copy of the animal whose cells donated the nucleus would develop. This theory was confirmed by successful experiments in frogs and fish (4,5). Using similar procedures and inner cell mass cells (ICM) as nuclear donors, Illmensee and Hoppe (6) reported the birth of live offspring (mice) in 1981. However, these results were never confirmed.

Keywords

Zona Pellucida Cumulus Cell Nuclear Transfer Inner Cell Mass Nuclear Donor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Willadsen, S. M. (1979) A method for culture of micromanipulated sheep embryos and its use to produce monozygotic twins. Nature 277, 298–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stice, S. L. and Keefer, C. L. (1993) Multiple generational bovine embryo cloning. Biol. Reprod. 48, 715–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spemann, H. Embryonic Development and Induction. Hafner, New York, 1938, pp. 210–211.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Briggs, R. and King, T. J. (1952) Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frog’s eggs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 445–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gurdon, J. B. and Uehlinger, V. (1966) Fertile intenstine nuclei. Nature 210, 1240–1241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Illmensee, K. and Hoppe, P. C. (1981) Nuclear transplantation in Mus musculus: Developmental potential of nuclei from preimplantation embryos. Cell 23, 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Willadsen, S. M. (1996) Nuclear transplantation in sheep embryos. Nature 320, 63–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wolf, E., Zakhartchenko, V., and Brem, G. (1998) Nuclear transfer in mammals: Recent developments and future perspectives. J. Biotechnol. 65, 99–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., McWhir, J., Kind, A. J., and Campbell, K. H. S. (1997) Viable offspring derived from the fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cibelli, J. B., Stice, S. L., Golueke, P. J., Kane, J. J., Jerry, J., Blackwell, C., et al. (1998) Cloned transgenic calves produced from nonquiescent fetal fibroblasts. Science 280, 1256–1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zakhartchenko, V., Mueller, S., Alberio, R., Schrenthaner, W., Stojkovic, M., Wenigerkind, H., et al. (2001) Nuclear transfer in cattle with non-transfected and transfected fetal or cloned transgenic fetal and postnatal fibroblasts. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 60, 362–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Westhusin, M. E., Long, C. R., Shin, T., Hill, J. R., Looney, C. R., Pryor, J. H., and Piedrahita, J. A. (2001) Cloning to reproduce desired genotypes. Theriogenology 55, 35–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Renard, J. P., Zhou, Qi., LeBourhis, D., Chavatte-Palmer, P., Hue, I., Heyman, Y., and Vignon, X. (2002) Nuclear transfer technologies: Between successes and doubts. Theriogenology 57, 203–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brueggerhoff, K., Zakhartchenko, V., Wenigerkind, H., Reichenbach, H-D., Prelle K., Schernthaner, W., et al. (2002) Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer using recipient oocytes recovered by ovum pick-up: Effect of maternal lineage of oocyte donors. Bio. Reprod. 66, 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gottfried Brem
    • 1
  • Manzoor A. Nowshari
    • 2
  1. 1.Agrobiogen GmbHHilgertshausenGermany
  2. 2.Central Veterinary Research LaboratoryDubaiUnited Arab Emirates

Personalised recommendations