Advertisement

Rotaviruses pp 217-238 | Cite as

Epidemiology of Group A Rotaviruses Surveillance and Burden of Disease Studies

  • Mary Ramsay
  • David Brown
Part of the Methods in Molecular Medicine™ book series (MIMM, volume 34)

Abstract

Human infection has been reported with groups A, B, and C rotaviruses (RVs). Of these, Group A RVs are the most important, being a major cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE). Each year, Group A RVs are estimated to cause approx 870,000 deaths worldwide in children less than 5 years (yr) of age, mostly in developing countries (1). This chapter will describe the epidemiological features of Group A RV infections, and will critically review the current surveillance strategies used to define the burden of disease.

Keywords

Vaccination Program Surveillance Data Vaccine Coverage Reporting Scheme Local Public Health 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bern, C., Martines, J., de Zoysa, I., and Glass, R. I. (1992) The magnitude of the global problem of diarrhoeal disease: a ten-year update. Bull. WHO 70, 705–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bishop, R. F. (1996) Natural history of human rotavirus infection. Arch. Virol. 12(Suppl.), 119–128.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rodriguez, W. J., Kim, H. W., Brandt, C. D., et al. (1987) Longitudinal study of rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis in families served by a pediatric medical practice: clinical and epidemiologic observations. Ped. Infect. Dis. J. 6, 170–176.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brüssow, H., Werchau, H., Liedtke, W., et al. (1988) Prevalence of antibodies to rotavirus in different age-groups of infants in Bochum, West Germany. J. Infect. Dis. 157, 1014–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ward, R. L. (1996) Mechanisms of protection against rotavirus in humans and mice. J. Infect. Dis. 174(Suppl. 1), S51–S58.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bernstein, D. I., Sander, D. S., Smith, V. E., Schiff, G. M., and Ward, R. L. (1991) Protection from rotavirus reinfection: 2-year prospective study. J. Infect. Dis. 164, 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koopman, J. S. and Monto, A. S. (1989) The Tecumseh Study. XV: Rotavirus infection and pathogenicity. Am. J. Epidemiol. 130, 750–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Friedman, M. G., Galil, A., Sarov, B., et al. (1988) Two sequential outbreaks of rotavirus gastroenteritis: evidence for symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfections. J. Infect. Dis. 158, 814–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Linhares, A. C., Pinheiro, F. P., Freitas, R. B., Gabbay, Y. B., Shirley, J. A., and Beards, G. M. (1981) An outbreak of rotavirus diarrhoea among a nonimmune, isolated South American Indian community. Am. J. Epidemiol. 113, 703–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cameron, D. J., Bishop, R. F., Veenstra, A. A., and Barnes, G. L. (1978) Noncultivable viruses and neonatal diarrhoea: fifteen-month survey in a newborn special care nursery. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8, 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grillner, L., Broberger, U., Chrystie, I., and Ransjo, U. (1985) Rotavirus infections in newborns: an epidemiological and clinical study. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 17, 349–355.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bishop, R. F. (1994) Natural history of human rotavirus infections, in Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract (Kapikian, A. Z., ed.), New York, Marcel Dekker, 131–167.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ho, M. S., Glass, R. I., Pinsky, P. F., and Anderson, L. J. (1988) Rotavirus as a cause of diarrheal morbidity and mortality in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 158, 1112–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Visser, L. E., Cano Portero, R., Gay, N. J., and Martinez Navarro, J. F. (1999) The impact of rotavirus disease in Spain: an estimate of hospital admissions due to rotavirus. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 72–76.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ryan, M. J., Ramsay, M., Brown, D., Gay, N. J., Farrington, C. P., and Wall, P. G. (1996) Hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus infection in England and Wales. J. Inf. Dis. 174(Suppl. 1), S12–S18.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hrdy, D. B. (1987) Epidemiology of rotaviral infection in adults. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9, 461–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holdaway, M. D., Kalmakoff, J., Schroeder, B. A., Wright, G. C., Todd, B. A., and Jennings, L. C. (1982) Rotavirus infection in Otago: a serological study. New Zeal. Med. J. 95, 110–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cubitt, W. D. and Holzel, H. (1980) An outbreak of rotavirus infection in a longstay ward of a geriatric hospital. J. Clin. Pathol. 33, 306–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Halvorsrud, J. and Orstavik, I. (1980) An epidemic of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in a nursing home for the elderly. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 12, 161–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kapikian, A. Z. (1997) Viral gastroenteritis, in Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology. (Evans, A. S. and Kaslow, R. A., eds.), New York, Plenum, 285–343.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Velazquez, F. R., Matson, D. O., Calva, J. J., et al. (1996) Rotavirus infections in infants as protection against subsequent infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 335, 1022–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crawley, J. M., Bishop, R. F., and Barnes, G. L. (1993) Rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants aged 0–6 months in Melbourne, Australia: implications for vaccination. J. Paediatr. Child. Health 29, 219–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodriguez, W. J., Kim, H. W., Brandt, C. D., et al. (1980) Rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Washington, DC, area: incidence of cases resulting in admission to the hospital. Am. J. Dis. Child. 134, 777–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vesikari, T., Maki, M., Sarkkinen, H. K., Arstila, P. P., and Halonen, P. E. (1981) Rotavirus, adenovirus, and non-viral enteropathogens in diarrhoea. Arch. Dis. Childh. 56, 264–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pérez-Schael, I. (1996) The impact of rotavirus disease in Venezuela. J. Infect. Dis. 174(Suppl. 1), S19–S21.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Biswas, R., Lyon, D. J., Nelson, E. A., Lau, D., and Lewindon, P. J. (1996) Aetiology of acute diarrhoea in hospitalized children in Hong Kong. Trop. Med. Int. Health 1, 679–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vijayan, V., Quak, S. H., and Wong, H. B. (1990) Incidence, clinical features and epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children. Ann. Trop. Paediatr. 10, 179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cunliffe, N. A., Kilgore, P. E., Bresee, J. S., et al. (1998) Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa: a review to assess the need for rotavirus immunization. Bull. WHO 76, 525–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hull, B. P., Spence, L., Bassett, D., Swanston, W. H., and Tikasingh, E. S. (1982) The relative importance of rotavirus and other pathogens in the etiology of gastroenteritis in Trinidadian children. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31, 142–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ruggeri, F. and Declich, S. (1999) Rotavirus infection among children with diarrhoea in Italy. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 66–71.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Velasco, A., Mateos, M., Mas, G., Pedraza, A., Diez, M., and Gutierrez, A. (1984) Three-year prospective study of intestinal pathogens in Madrid, Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20, 290–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Unicomb, L. E., Kilgore, P. E., Faruque, S. G., et al. (1997) Anticipating rotavirus vaccines: hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea and estimates of disease burden in Bangladesh. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16, 947–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kuttner, N. S. (1985) Electron microscopic findings in faeces from children with gastroenteritis. New Zeal. Med. J. 98, 801–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barnes, G. L., Uren, E., Stevens, K. B., and Bishop, R. F. (1998) Etiology of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Melbourne, Australia, from April 1980 to March 1993. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36, 133–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pitson, G. A., Grimwood, K., Coulson, B. S., et al. (1986) Comparison between children treated at home and those requiring hospital admission for rotavirus and other enteric pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in Melbourne, Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24, 395–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rodriguez, W. J., Kim, H. W., Arrobio, J. O., et al (1977) Clinical features of gastroenteritis associated with human reovirus-like agents in infants and young children. J. Pediatr. 91, 188–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Isaacs, D., Day, D., and Crook, S. (1986) Childhood gastroenteritis: a population study. Brit. Med. J. 293, 545–546.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Engleberg, N. C., Holburt, E. N., Barrett, T. J., et al. (1982) Epidemiology of diarrhea due to rotavirus on an Indian reservation: risk factors in the home environment. J. Infect. Dis. 145, 894–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koopman, J. S., Turkisk, V. J., Monto, A. S., Thompson, F. E., and Isaacson, R. E. (1984) Milk fat and gastrointestinal illness. Am. J. Publ. Health 74, 1371–1373.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koopman, J. S., Turkish, V. J., and Monto, A. S. (1985) Infant formulas and gastrointestinal illness. Am. J. Publ. Health 75, 477–480.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Matson, D. O. (1994) Viral gastroenteritis in day-care settings: epidemiology and new developments. Pediatrics 94, 999–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O’Ryan, M. L., Matson, D. O., Estes, M. K., Bartlett, A. V., and Pickering, L. K. (1990) Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in children attending day care centers in Houston. J. Infect. Dis. 162, 810–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bartlett, A. V., III, Reves, R. R., and Pickering, L. K. (1988) Rotavirus in infanttoddler day care centers: epidemiology relevant to disease control strategies. J. Pediatr. 113, 435–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pacini, D. L., Brady, M. T., Budde, C. T., Connell, M. J., Hamparian, V. V., and Hughes, J. H. (1987)Nosocomial rotaviral diarrhea: pattern of spread on wards in a children’s hospital. J. Med. Virol. 23, 359–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gaggero, A., Avendano, L. F., Fernandez, J., and Spencer, E. (1992) Nosocomial transmission of rotavirus from patients admitted with diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30, 3294–3297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ford-Jones, E. L., Mindorff, C. M., Gold, R., and Petric, M. (1990) The incidence of viral-associated diarrhea after admission to a pediatric hospital. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131, 711–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Berner, R., Schumacher, R. F., Harmeister, S., and Forster, J. (1999) Occurrence and impact of community-acquired and nosocomial rotavirus infections: a hospital-based study over 10 year. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 48–52.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raad, I. I., Sherertz, R. J., Russell, B. A., and Reuman, P. D. (1990) Uncontrolled nosocomial rotavirus transmission during a community outbreak. Am. J. Infect. Contr. 18, 24–28.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Abbas, A. M. and Denton, M. D. (1987) An outbreak of rotavirus infection in a geriatric hospital. J. Hosp. Infect. 9, 76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lewis, D. C., Lightfoot, N. F., Cubitt, W. D., and Wilson, S. A. (1989) Outbreaks of astrovirus type 1 and rotavirus gastroenteritis in a geriatric in-patient population. J. Hosp. Infect. 14, 9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Oishi, I., Maeda, A., Kurimura, T., and Kimura, M. (1979) Epidemiological and virological studies on outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus in primary schools in Osaka. Biken J. 22, 61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cook, S. M., Glass, R. I., Lebaron, C. W., and Ho, M. S. (1990) Global seasonality of rotavirus infections. Bull. WHO 68, 171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Haffejee, I. E. (1995) The epidemiology of rotavirus infections: a global perspective. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 20, 275–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brandt, C. D., Kim, H. W., Rodriguez, W. J., et al. (1983) Pediatric viral gastroenteritis during eight year of study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18, 71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Torok, T. J., Kilgore, P. E., Clarke, M. J., Holman, R. C., Bresee, J. S., and Glass, R. I. (1997) Visualizing geographic and temporal trends in rotavirus activity in the United States, 1991 to 1996. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16, 941–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Flahault, A., Garnerin, P., Chauvin, P., et al. (1995) Sentinel traces of an epidemic of acute gastroenteritis in France. Lancet 346, 162–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Borgdorff, M., Koopmans, M., Simone, E., Goosen, M., and Sprenger, M. (1995) Surveillance of gastroenteritis. Lancet 346, 842–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Koopmans, M. and Brown, D. (1999) The seasonality and diversity of Group A rotaviruses in Europe. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl 426), 14–19.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kapikian, A. Z., Wyatt, R. G., Levine, M. M., et al. (1983) Studies in volunteers with human rotaviruses. Dev. Biol. Standard 53, 209–218.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ramachandran, M., Das, B. K., Vij, A., et al. (1996) Unusual diversity of human rotavirus G and P genotypes in India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34, 436–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nakagomi, O. and Nakagomi, T. (1993) Interspecies transmission of rotaviruses studied from the perspective of genogroup. Microbiol. Immunol. 37, 337–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bishop, R. F., Barnes, G. L., Cipriani, E., and Lund, J. S. (1983) Clinical immunity after neonatal rotavirus infection. A prospective longitudinal study in young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 309, 72–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kapikian, A. Z. and Chanock, R. M. (1996) Rotaviruses, in Field's Virology, 3rd ed., (Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M., Howley, P. M., et al., eds.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp. 1657–1708.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Coulson, B. S., Grimwood, K., Masendycz, P. J., et al. (1990) Comparison of rotavirus immunoglobulin A coproconversion with other indices of rotavirus infection in a longitudinal study in childhood. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28, 1367–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Estes, M. K. (1996) Advances in molecular biology: impact on rotavirus vaccine development. J. Infect. Dis. 174(Suppl. 1), S37–S46.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gentsch, J. R., Woods, P. A., Ramachandran, M., et al. (1996) Review of G and P typing results from a global collection of rotavirus strains: implications for vaccine development. J. Infect. Dis. 174(Suppl. 1), S30-S36.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Beards, G. and Graham, C. (1995) Temporal distribution of rotavirus G serotypes in the West-Midlands region of the United Kingdom, 1983-1994. J. Diarrh. Dis. Res. 13, 235–237.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leite, J. P., Alfieri, A. A., Woods, P. A., Glass, R. I., and Gentsch, J. R. (1996) Rotavirus G and P types circulating in Brazil: characterization by RT-PCR, probe hybridization, and sequence analysis. Arch. Virol. 141, 2365–2374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ramachandran, M., Gentsch, J. R., Parashar, U. D., et al. (1998) Detection and characterization of novel rotavirus strains in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36, 3223–3229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Declich, S. and Carter, A. (1994) Public health surveillance: historical origins, methods and evaluation. Bull. WHO 72, 285–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Last, J. M. (1988) A dictionary of epidemiology. Oxford-New York. University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Noah, N. D. (1991) Transmissable agents, in Oxford Textbook of Public Health. (Holland, W. W., Detels, R., and Knox, G., eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford: 417–434.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Begg, N. and Miller, E. (1990) The role of epidemiology in vaccine policy. Vaccine 8, 180–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Orenstein, W. A. and Bernier, R. H. (1990) Surveillance: Information for action. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 37, 709–734.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rennels, M. B., Glass, R. I., Dennehy, P. H., et al. (1996) Safety and efficacy of high-dose rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccines-report of the National Multicenter Trial. Pediatrics 97, 7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Joensuu, J., Koskenniemi, E., Pang, X. L., and Vesikari, T. (1997) Randomised placebo-controlled trial of rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Lancet 350, 1205–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pérez-Schael, I., Guntiñas, M. J., Pérez, M., et al. (1997) Efficacy of the rhesus rotavirus-based quadrivalent vaccine in infants and young children in Venezuela. N. Engl. J. Med. 337, 1181–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Anon. (1999) Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule—United States, 1999. MMWR 48, 8–16.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    World Health Organization. (1999) Rotavirus vaccines. Weekly Epidemiol. Rec. 74, 33–38.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Smith, J. C., Haddix, A. C., Teutsch, S. M., and Glass, R. I. (1995) Cost-effectiveness analysis of a rotavirus immunization program for the United States. Pediatrics 96, 609–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McCormick, A. (1993) The notification of infectious diseases in England and Wales. Commum. Dis. Rep. 3, R19-R25.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Healing, T. D. (1992) The surveillance of communicable disease in the European Community. Commun. Dis. Rep. 2, R73-R77.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fleming, D. M. and Crombie, D. L. (1985) The incidence of common infectious diseases: the weekly returns service of the Royal College of General Practitioners. Health Trends 17, 13–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Koopmans, M. and van Asperen, I. (1999) Epidemiology of rotavirus infection the Netherlands. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl 426), 31–37.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stroobant, A. W., van Casteren, V., and Thiers, G. (1988) Surveillance systems from primary care data: surveillance through a network of sentinel general practitioners, in Surveillance in Health and Disease. (Noah, N. D. and Eylenbosch, W. J., eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 62–67.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Valleron, A. J. and Garnerin, P. (1993) Computerised surveillance of communicable diseases in France. Commun. Dis. Rep. 3, R82–R87.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fleming, D. M., McCormick, A., and Charlton, J. (1996) The capture of socioeconomic data in general practice. Brit. J. Gen. Pract. 46, 217–220.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    McCormick, A. (1995) Morbidity Statistics in General Practice: Fourth National Study 1991-1992. Her Majesty’ Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Djuretic, T., Ramsey, M. E., Farrington, P. C., Fleming, D. M., and Brown, D. (1998) Risk factors for winter outbreaks of acute diarrhoea in France. Winter outbreaks of diarrhoea occur in United Kingdom too. Br. Med. J. 317, 145, 146.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Djuretic, T., Ramsay, M., Gay, N., Ryan, M., Wall, P., and Fleming, D. (1999) An estimate of the proportion of diarrhoeal disease episodes seen by general practitioners attributable to rotavirus in children under five year of age, England and Wales. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 38-41.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vesikari, T., Rautanen, T., and von Bonsdorff, C-H. (1999) Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Finland: burden of disease and epidemiologic features. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 24–30.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ing, D., Glass, R. I., Lebaron, C. W., and Lew, J. F. (1992) Laboratory-based surveillance for rotavirus in the United States, January 1989-May 1991. MMWR 41, 47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wall, P. G., de Louvois, J., Gilbert, R. J., and Rowe, B. (1996) Food poisoning: notifications, laboratory reports, and outbreaks-where do the statistics come from and what do they mean? Commun. Dis. Rep. 6, R93–R100.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    rant, A. D. and Eke, B. (1993) Application of information technology to the laboratory reporting of communicable disease in England and Wales. Commun. Dis. Rep. 3, R75–R78.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Torok, T. J., Kilgore, P. E., Clarke, M. J., Holman, R. C., Bresee, J. S., and Glass, R. I. (1997) Visualizing geographic and temporal trends in rotavirus activity in the United States. 1991-1996. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16, 941–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
  97. 97.
    Johansen, K., Bennet, R., Bondesson, K., et al. (1999) Incidence and estimates of the disease burden of rotavirus in Sweden. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 20–23).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lew, J. F., Glass, R. I., Petric, M., et al. (1990) Six-year retrospective surveillance of gastroenteritis viruses identified at ten electron microscopy centers in the United States and Canada. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9, 709–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Desenclos, J. C. L., Rebiere, I., Letrillard, L., Flahault, A., and Hubert, B. (1999) Diarrhoea related morbidity and rotavirus infection in France. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 42–47.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Szucs, G., Uj, M., Mihaly, I., and Deak, J. (1999) Burden of human rotavirusassociated hospitalizations in three geographic regions of Hungary. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 61–65.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mrukowicz, J., Krobicka, B., Duplaga, M., et al. (1999) The epidemiology and impact of rotavirus diarrhoea in Poland. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 53–60.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vesikari, T. (1999) Rotavirus vaccine studies in Europe. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 88(Suppl. 426), 9–13.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Estes, M. K. (1996) Rotaviruses and their replication, in Fields Virology, 3rd ed., (Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M., Howley, P. M., et al., eds.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1625–1655.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Berkelman, R. L. and Buehler, J. W. (1991) Surveillance, in Oxford Textbook of Public Health. (Holland, W. W., Detels, R., and Knox, G., eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 161–176.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Paterson, J. G. (1988) Surveillance systems from hospital data, in Surveillance in Health and Disease (Noah, N. D. and Eylenbosch, W. J., eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 49–63.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    World Health Organization. (1997) International Classification of Diseases. 9th revision. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jin, S., Kilgore, P. E., Holman, R. C., Clarke, M. J., Gangarosa, E. J., and Glass, R. I. (1996) Trends in hospitalizations for diarrhea in United States children from 1979 through 1992: estimates of the morbidity associated with rotavirus. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15, 397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    World Health Organization (1992) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th revision. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Parashar, U. D., Holman, R. C., Clarke, M. J., Bresee, J. S., and Glass, R. I. (1998) Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus diarrhea in the United States, 1993 through 1995: surveillance based on the new ICD-9-CM rotavirus-specific diagnostic code. J. Infect. Dis. 177, 13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Carlson, J. A., Middleton, P. J., Szymanski, M. T., Huber, J., and Petric, M. (1978) Fatal rotavirus gastroenteritis: an analysis of 21 cases. Am. J. Dis. Child. 132, 477–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Whitehead, F. J., Couper, R. T., Moore, L., Bourne, A. J., and Byard, R. W. (1996) Dehydration deaths in infants and young children. Am. J. Forens. Med. Path. 17, 73–78.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Brüssow, H., Werchau, H., Lerner, L., et al. (1998) Seroconversion patterns to four human rotavirus serotypes in hospitalized infants with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J. Infect. Dis. 158, 588–595.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Brüssow, H., Clark, H. F., and Sidoti, J. (1991) Prevalence of serum neutralizing antibody to serotype 9 rotavirus WI61 in children from South America and central Europe. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29, 208–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ruuska, T. and Vesikari, T. (1990) Rotavirus disease in Finnish children: use of numerical scores for clinical severity of diarrhoeal episodes. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 22, 259–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Farrington, C. P. and Beale, A. D. (1993) Computer-aided detection of temporal clusters of organisms reported to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. Commun. Dis. Rep. 3, R78-R82.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Klaucke, D. N., Buehler, J. W., Thacker, S. B., et al. (1988) Guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. MMWR 37, 1–18.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hook, E. B. and Regal, R. R. (1995) Capture-recapture methods in epidemiology: methods and limitations. Epidemiol. Rev. 17, 243–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hardy, A. M., Lairson, M., and Morrow, A. L. (1994) Costs associated with gastrointestinal illness among children attending daycare centres in Houston, Texas. Pediatrics 94, 1091–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Takala, A. K., Koskenniemi, E., Joensuu, J., Makela, M., and Vesikari, T. (1998) Economic evaluation of rotavirus vaccinations in Finland: randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27, 272–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tucker, A. W., Haddix, A. C., Bresee, J. S., Holman, R. C., Parashar, U. D., and Glass, R. I. (1998) Cost-effectiveness analysis of a rotavirus immunization program for the United States. JAMA 279, 1371–1376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lobet, M. P., Stroobant, A., and Mertens, R. (1987) Tool for the validation of the network of sentinel general practitioners in the Belgian health care system. Internat. J. Epidemiol. 16, 612–618.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Noël, J. S., Parker, S. P., Choules, W. D. (1994) Impact of rotavirus infection on a paediatric hospital in the east end of London. J. Clin. Path. 47, 67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Glass, R. I., Kilgore, P. E., Holman, R. C,. et al. (1996) The epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in the United States: surveillance and estimates of disease burden. J. Infect. Dis. 174(Suppl. 1), S5–S11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kilgore, P. E., Holman, R. C., Clarke, M. J., and Glass, R. I. (1995) Trends of diarrheal disease-associated mortality in US children, 1968 through 1991. JAMA 274, 1143–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gay, N. J. (1996) A model of long-term decline in the transmissibility of an infectious disease: implications for the incidence of hepatitis A. Internat. J. Epidemiol. 25, 854–861.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Orenstein, W. A., Bernier, R. H., and Hinman, A. R. (1988) Assessing vaccine efficacy in the field. Further observations. Epidemiol. Rev. 10, 212–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gentsch, J. R., Woods, P. A., Ramachandran, M., Das, B. K., Leite, J. P., Alfieri, A. et al. (1996) Review of G and P typing results from a global collection of strains: implication for vaccine development. J. Infect. Dis. 174(Suppl. 1), S30–S36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Anderson, R. M., Donnelly, C.A., and Gupta, S. (1997) Vaccine design, evaluation, and community-based use for antigenically variable infectious agents. Lancet 350, 1466–1470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jin, Q., Ward, R. L., Knowlton, D. R., et al. (1996) Divergence of VP7 genes of G1 rotaviruses isolated from infants vaccinated with reassortant rhesus rotaviruses. Arch.Virol. 141, 2057–2076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lebaron, C. W., Allen, J. R., Hebert, M., Woods, P., Lew, J., and Glass, R. I. (1992) Outbreaks of summer rotavirus linked to laboratory practices: the National Rotavirus Surveillance System. Ped. Infect. Dis. J. 11, 860–865.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Anderson, R. M. (1992) The concept of herd immunity and the design of community-based immunization programmes. Vaccine 10, 928–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Gay, N. J., Hesketh, L. M., Morgan-Capner, P., and Miller, E. (1995) Interpretation of serological surveillance data for measles using mathematical models: implications for vaccine strategy. Epidemiol. Infect. 115, 139–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Ramsay
    • 1
  • David Brown
    • 2
  1. 1.Public Health Laboratory ServiceCommunicable Disease Surveillance CentreLondonUK
  2. 2.Enteric and Respiratory Virus Laboratory, Central Public Health LaboratoryPublic Health Laboratory ServiceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations