Markers for Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) Therapy in Melanoma

  • Michael A. Postow
  • Jianda Yuan
  • Shigehisa Kitano
  • Alexander M. Lesokhin
  • Jedd D. Wolchok
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1102)


Therapeutic strategies that block Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) enhance antitumor immunity and prolong the lives of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, only a subset of patients benefit, and responses are often delayed due to heterogeneous response kinetics. Ongoing monitoring of the immunologic effects of therapy and correlating these immunologic changes with patient outcomes continue to be important goals to better identify possible mechanisms of clinical activity of these agents. This chapter introduces the major areas of investigation in monitoring patients treated with CTLA-4 blockade and provides specific details of our experience performing selected assays.

Key words

Ipilimumab Tremelimumab CTLA-4 Immunologic response biomarkers Absolute lymphocyte count Inducible costimulator Myeloid-derived suppressor cells NY-ESO-1 antigen 



We would like to thank Erika Ritter and Teresa Rasalan for their critical review of the book chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Postow
    • 1
  • Jianda Yuan
    • 1
  • Shigehisa Kitano
    • 1
  • Alexander M. Lesokhin
    • 1
  • Jedd D. Wolchok
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

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