Skip to main content

In Vivo Visualization of Encephalitic Lesions in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Infected Mice by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • Protocol
  • First Online:
Virus-Host Interactions

Part of the book series: Methods in Molecular Biology ((MIMB,volume 1064))

  • 5151 Accesses

Abstract

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is one of the most severe viral infections affecting the temporal lobes of the brain. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and antiviral drug treatment, one third of all patients fail to respond to therapy or subsequently suffer neurological relapse and develop long term neurological damage [1, 2]. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the appropriate noninvasive tools for early diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) infections. In this chapter we introduce a mouse model for HSE and describe a MRI protocol to characterize the pathogenesis of HSE over time.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Protocol
USD 49.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  1. Lellouch-Tubiana A, Fohlen M, Robain O, Rozenberg F (2000) Immunocytochemical characterization of long-term persistent immune activation in human brain after herpes simplex encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 26(3):285–294, nan243 [pii]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Whitley RJ, Gnann JW (2002) Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens. Lancet 359(9305):507–513. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07681-X, S0140-6736(02)07681-X [pii]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Roos KL (1999) Encephalitis. Neurol Clin 17(4):813–833

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Whitley RJ, Kimberlin DW, Roizman B (1998) Herpes simplex viruses. Clin Infect Dis 26(3):541–553, quiz 554–545

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Chen SH, Yao HW, Huang WY, Hsu KS, Lei HY, Shiau AL (2006) Efficient reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus from mouse central nervous system tissues. J Virol 80(24):12387–12392. doi:10.1128/JVI.01232-06, JVI.01232-06 [pii]

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Whitley RJ (1996) Herpes viruses, chapter 68. In: Baron S (ed) Medical microbiology, 4th edn. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX

    Google Scholar 

  7. Boos J, Esiri MM (1986) Sporadic encephalitis I. Viral encephalitis: pathology, diagnosis, and management. Blackwell, Boston, MA

    Google Scholar 

  8. Sancho-Shimizu V, Zhang SY, Abel L, Tardieu M, Rozenberg F, Jouanguy E, Casanova JL (2007) Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex virus 1 encephalitis in mice and humans. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 7(6):495–505. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e3282f151d2, 00130832-200712000-00006 [pii]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Burgos JS, Guzman-Sanchez F, Sastre I, Fillat C, Valdivieso F (2006) Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging for monitoring herpes simplex virus type 1 hematogenous infection. Microbes Infect 8(5):1330–1338. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.12.021, S1286-4579(06)00045-1 [pii]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Lundberg P, Ramakrishna C, Brown J, Tyszka JM, Hamamura M, Hinton DR, Kovats S, Nalcioglu O, Weinberg K, Openshaw H, Cantin EM (2008) The immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in susceptible mice is a major cause of central nervous system pathology resulting in fatal encephalitis. J Virol 82(14):7078–7088. doi:10.1128/JVI.00619-08, JVI.00619-08 [pii]

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Liu H, Ren G, Liu S, Zhang X, Chen L, Han P, Cheng Z (2010) Optical imaging of reporter gene expression using a positron-emission-tomography probe. J Biomed Opt 15(6):060505. doi:10.1117/1.3514659

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Misra UK, Kalita J, Phadke RV, Wadwekar V, Boruah DK, Srivastava A, Maurya PK, Bhattacharyya A (2010) Usefulness of various MRI sequences in the diagnosis of viral encephalitis. Acta Trop 116(3):206–211. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.08.007, S0001-706X(10)00209-3 [pii]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Lee JS, Kang HJ, Gong G, Jung HD, Lim KH, Kim ST, Lim TH (2006) MR imaging of in vivo recruitment of iron oxide-labeled macrophages in experimentally induced soft-tissue infection in mice. Radiology 241(1):142–148. doi:10.1148/radiol.2403051156, 241/1/142 [pii]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Hanaoka K, Kikuchi K, Terai T, Komatsu T, Nagano T (2008) A Gd3+-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent sensitive to beta-galactosidase activity utilizing a receptor-induced magnetization enhancement (RIME) phenomenon. Chemistry 14(3):987–995. doi:10.1002/chem.200700785

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Foley LM, Hitchens TK, Kochanek PM, Melick JA, Jackson EK, Ho C (2005) Murine orthostatic response during prolonged vertical studies: effect on cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin-labeled MRI. Magn Reson Med 54(4):798–806. doi:10.1002/mrm.20621

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Haase A, Odoj F, von Kienlin M, Warnking J, Fidler F, Weisser A, Nittka M, Rommel E, Lanz T, Kalusche B, Griswold M (2000) NMR probeheads for in vivo applications. Concepts Magn Reson 12(6):361–388

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Hennig J, Nauerth A, Friedburg H (1986) RARE imaging: a fast imaging method for clinical MR. Magn Reson Med 3(6):823–833

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

This project was supported by the Innovative Medical Research (IMF) Münster, Germany (HÖ 211112).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

About this protocol

Cite this protocol

Hafezi, W., Hoerr, V. (2013). In Vivo Visualization of Encephalitic Lesions in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Infected Mice by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In: Bailer, S., Lieber, D. (eds) Virus-Host Interactions. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1064. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-601-6_18

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-601-6_18

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Humana Press, Totowa, NJ

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-62703-600-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-62703-601-6

  • eBook Packages: Springer Protocols

Publish with us

Policies and ethics