Advertisement

Haemostasis pp 415-427 | Cite as

D-Dimer and Fibrinogen/Fibrin Degradation Products

  • Linda J. Stang
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 992)

Abstract

Although clinical requests for D-dimer are generally in the minority of assays in the routine clinical laboratory, they are an important aspect—especially if the laboratory supports an active emergency room and hematology service. Throughout the literature, D-dimer assays have been used for many purposes in the research setting; however it is generally the negative predictive value of the assay that is the most common piece of information being utilized from the standpoint of a clinician. Research or clinical needs will dictate the type of assay required—a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative D-dimer assay may be appropriate for a particular purpose. Commonalities and differences between these assay types are outlined here, as well as universal concerns regarding standardization of D-dimer assay results.

Key words

D-dimer Fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products Quantitative Semiquantitative Qualitative Standardization 

References

  1. 1.
    Hunt FA, Rylatt DB, Hart RA, Bundesen PG (1985) Serum crosslinked fibrin (XDP) and fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products (FDP) in disorders associated with activation of the coagulation of fibrinolytic systems. BJH 60(4):715–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adam SS, Key NS, Greenberg CS (2009) D-dimer antigen: current concepts and future prospects. Blood 113(13):2878–2887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown BA (1980) Coagulation. In: Hematology, 3rd edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA. p 115Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Francis CW, Marder VJ (1994) Physiologic regulation and pathologic disorders of fibrinolysis. In: Colman RW, Hirsch J, Marder VJ (eds) Hemostasis and thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice, 3rd edn. TB Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, PA, pp 1081–1083Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Laffan M, Manning R (2006) Investigation of haemostasis. In: Lewis SM, Bain BJ, Bates I (eds) Dacie & Lewis practical haematology, 10th edn. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Edinburgh, p 386Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bockenstedt PL (2003) Laboratory methods in hemostasis. In: Loscalzo J, Schafer AI (eds) Thrombosis and hemorrhage. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, pp 383–386Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ellman L, Carvalho A et al (1973) The Thrombo-Wellcotest as a screening test for disseminated intravascular coagulation. New Engl J Med 288:633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dempfle CE (2006) D-Dimer assays: the current status and new assay technologies. Thromb Res 118:569–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    AMAX Accuclot D-Dimer product insert No. CRS116; revision 2003-02Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Quantitative D-dimer for the exclusion of venous thromboembolic disease (2010) Proposed Guideline H59-P, Vol 30(No. 9)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Diagnostica Stago D-DI test package insert. REF 00454, 24552 02—Edition October 2003Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dempfle CE (2003) Evaluation of a new automated quantitative D-dimer, advanced D-dimer, in patients suspected of venous thromboembolism: a comment on correlation of D-dimer assays. Blood Coagul Fibrinol 14:313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walker JB, Nesheim ME (1999) The molecular weights, mass distribution, chain ­composition, and structure of soluble fibrin degradation products released from fibrin clot perfused with plasmin. J Biol Chem 274:5201–5212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pfitzner SA, Dempfle CE, Heene DL (1997) Fibrin detected in plasma of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation by fibrin-specific antibodies consists primarily of high molecular weight factor XIIIa-crosslinked and plasmin-modified complexes partially containing fibrinopeptide A. Thromb Haemost 78:1067–1078Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dempfle CE, Zips S, Ergul H, Heene DL, and the FACT Study Group (2001) Evaluation of 23 quantitative D-dimer assays as basis for the development of D-dimer calibrators. Thromb Haemost 85:671–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hammouda W, Moroz LA (1987) False-positive reaction for fibrin degradation products due to a monoclonal (IgM lambda) cryoglobulin with warm-reactive antibody activity for rabbit IgG. Am J Med 82:1263–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Demplfle CE, Kontny F, Abildgaard U (1999) Predictive value of coagulation markers concerning clinical outcome 90 days after anterior myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost 81(5):701–704Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Galvani M, Ferrini D, Ottani F, Eisenberg PR (1999) Early risk stratification of unstable angina/non-Q myocardial infarction: biochemical markers of coronary thrombosis. Int J Cardiol 68(Suppl 1):S55–S61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda J. Stang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyUniversity of Alberta HospitalEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations