Methods of Dopamine Research in Retina Cells
Dopamine is the main catecholamine found in the retina of most species, being synthesized from the l-amino acid tyrosine. Its effects are mediated by G protein coupled receptors subfamilies that are commonly coupled to adenylyl cyclase in opposite manners. There is evidence that this amine works as a developmental signal in the embryonic retina and several distinct roles have been attributed to dopamine in the retina such as proliferation, synaptogenesis, neuroprotection, increased signal transmission in cone, gap junction modulation, neuronal–pigmented epithelium–glial communication, and neuron–glia interaction. Here we describe methods that have been used in the study of the dopaminergic function in the retina in the last 40 years. We emphasize the approaches used in the studies on the development of the avian and rodent retina. The dopaminergic system is one of the first phenotypes to appear in the developing vertebrate retina.
Key wordsRetina Dopamine Cyclic AMP Müller glia Amacrine Tyrosine hydroxylase Development
This work was supported by grants from FAPERJ, CNPq, PROPPi-UFF and INCT-CNPq (INNT).
- 12.Sambrook J, Fritsch E, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 22.Lankford KL, De Mello FG, Klein WL (1988) D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:2839–2843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar