Dopamine pp 25-42 | Cite as

Methods of Dopamine Research in Retina Cells

  • Ana Lucia Marques Ventura
  • Fernando Garcia de Mello
  • Ricardo Augusto de Melo ReisEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 964)


Dopamine is the main catecholamine found in the retina of most species, being synthesized from the l-amino acid tyrosine. Its effects are mediated by G protein coupled receptors subfamilies that are commonly coupled to adenylyl cyclase in opposite manners. There is evidence that this amine works as a developmental signal in the embryonic retina and several distinct roles have been attributed to dopamine in the retina such as proliferation, synaptogenesis, neuroprotection, increased signal transmission in cone, gap junction modulation, neuronal–pigmented epithelium–glial communication, and neuron–glia interaction. Here we describe methods that have been used in the study of the dopaminergic function in the retina in the last 40 years. We emphasize the approaches used in the studies on the development of the avian and rodent retina. The dopaminergic system is one of the first phenotypes to appear in the developing vertebrate retina.

Key words

Retina Dopamine Cyclic AMP Müller glia Amacrine Tyrosine hydroxylase Development 



This work was supported by grants from FAPERJ, CNPq, PROPPi-UFF and INCT-CNPq (INNT).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Lucia Marques Ventura
    • 1
  • Fernando Garcia de Mello
    • 2
  • Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology, Program in NeurosciencesUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of NeurochemistryProgram in Neurobiology IBCCF, UFRJRio de JaneiroBrazil

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