Phenotypic, Physiological, and Molecular Evaluation of Rice Chilling Stress Response at the Vegetative Stage
Rice is a chilling-sensitive plant that is particularly prone to injury during the early stages of seedling development and during flowering. Significant variation exists between subspecies with japonica cultivars generally being less sensitive than most indica cultivars. In most temperate and subtropical countries where rice is grown, crop damage often occurs during the early stages of seedling development due to occasional cold snaps coinciding with the first few weeks after direct seeding in late spring to early summer. Irreversible injuries often result in seedling mortality or if the crop survives a stress episode, plant vigor and resistance to pests and diseases are severely compromised. Recent physiological and molecular studies have shown that oxidative stress is the primary cause of early chilling injuries in rice and the differential responses of indica and japonica cultivars are defined to a large extent by gene expression related to oxidative signaling and defenses. In this chapter, we summarize basic phenotypic, physiological, and molecular procedures that can be adopted for routine evaluation of differential responses between cultivars as well as for functional genomics studies.
Key wordsChilling stress Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen scavenging H2O2 Electrolyte leakage Transcriptome Regulatory cluster
This work was supported by a grant from USDA-CSREES-NRI, Plant Genome Research (2006-35604-1669), to BGDR and by a grant from Korea Research Foundation (KRF-2006-352-F00002) and BioGreen 21 Program-Rural Development Administration (20080401034024), Republic of Korea, to SJY and MRP.
- 4.Jeong EG, Kim DS, Lee JI, Kim SL, Kim KJ, Yea JD, Son JR (2006) Effects of cold water irrigation on quality properties of rice. Kor J Crop Sci 51S:119–124Google Scholar
- 7.Jeong EG, Yea JD, Baek MK, Moon HP, Choi HC, Yoon KM, Ahn SN (2000) Estimation of critical temperature for traits related to cold tolerance in rice. Kor J Breed 32:363–368Google Scholar
- 9.Peterson ML, Jones DB, Rutger JN (1978) Cool temperature screening of rice lines for seedling vigor. II Riso 27:269–274Google Scholar
- 12.Rabbani MA, Maruyama K, Abe H, Khan MA, Katsura K, Ito Y, Yoshiwara K, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2003) Monitoring expression profiles of rice genes under cold, drought, and high salinity stresses and abscisic acid application using cDNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analyses. Plant Physiol 133:1755–1767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Dubouzet JG, Sakuma Y, Ito Y, Kasuga M, Dubouzet EG, Miura S, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki Y (2003) OsDREB genes in rice, Oryza sativa L., encode transcription activators that function in drought-, high salt-, and cold-responsive gene expression. Plant J 33:751–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.International Rice Research Institute (2002) Standard evaluation system for rice. IRRI, Philippines, p 55Google Scholar
- 22.Zhou M, Diwu Z, Panchuk-Voloshina N, Haugland RP (1997) A stable nonfluorescent derivative of rosorufin for the fluorometric determination of trace hydrogen peroxide: applications in detecting the activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase and other oxidases. Anal Biochem 253:102–168Google Scholar