Advertisement

Rice Artificial Hybridization for Genetic Analysis

  • Xueyan ShaEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 956)

Abstract

Artificial hybridization has probably been practiced since ancient time; however, the science of genetics did not initiate until Gregor Mendel conducted a series of crosses between different pure lines of garden pea and made careful observations and systematical analyses of their offspring. Artificial hybridization or crossing between carefully chosen parents has been and still is the primary way to transfer genes from different germplasm for self-pollinated rice. Through gene recombination, novel genetic variation is created by different arrangements of genes existing in parental lines. Procedures of artificial hybridization involve the selection of appropriate panicles from representative plants of the female parents, the emasculation of female parents, and the pollination of emasculated panicles with abundant pollens of selected male parents. Of the numerous proposed methods, hot water and vacuum emasculation have proven to be the most robust and reliable ones. A successful and efficient hybridization program also relies on the knowledge of parental lines or germplasm, the reproductive biology and development of rice, the conditions needed to promote flowering and seed development, and the techniques to synchronize flowering of diverse parents.

Key words

Rice Oryza sativa L. Artificial hybridization Crossing Vacuum emasculation Hot water emasculation Pollination 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank Steve Linscombe, Kris De Pauw, Shane J. Theunissen, and Blake J. Henry for their help with various aspects of this study. Financial support from the Louisiana Rice Research Board is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Lu BR (1999) Taxonomy of the genus Oryza (Poaceae): historical perspective and current status. Int Rice Res Notes 24:4–8Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khush GS (1997) Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice. Plant Mol Biol 35:25–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vaughan DA, Morishima H, Kadowaki K (2003) Diversity in the Oryza genus. Curr Opin Plant Mol Biol 6:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carney JA (2001) Black rice. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sweeney M, McCouch S (2007) The complex history of the domestication of rice. Ann Bot 100:951–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nia J, Colowit PM, Mackill DJ (2002) Evaluation of genetic diversity in rice subspecies using microsatellite markers. Crop Sci 42:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garris AJ, Tai TT, Coburn J, Kresovich S, McCouch SR (2005) Genetic structure and diversity in Oryza sativa L. Genetics 169:1631–1638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh RK, Khush GS, Singh US, Singh AK, Singh S (2000) Breeding aromatic rice for high yield, improved aroma and grain quality. In: Singh RK, Singh US, Khush GS (eds) Aromatic rices. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India, pp 71–105Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoshida S (1981) Fundamentals of rice crop science. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Datta D (1981) Principles and practices of rice production. IRRI, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ikeda K, Sunohara H, Nagato Y (2004) Developmental course of inflorescence and spikelet in rice. Breed Sci 54:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Coffman WR, Herrera RM (1980) Rice. In: Harley HH, Fehr WR (eds) Hybridization of crop plants. Crop Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp 511–522Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jennings PR, Coffman WR, Kauffman HE (1979) Rice improvement. IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fehr WR (1987) Principles of cultivar development, vol 1. Theory and technique. Macmillan Publishing Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mackill DJ, Coffman WR, Garrity DP (1996) Rainfed lowland rice improvement. IRRI, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    House LR (1985) A guide to sorghum breeding, 2nd edn. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stephens JC, Quinby JR (1933) Bulk emasculation of sorghum flowers. Agron J 25:233–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jodon NE (1938) Experiments on artificial hybridization of rice. Agron J 30:294–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hargrove TR (1974) Vacuum emasculation streamlines hybridization. IRRI Report 3: 3–4Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jackson MT (1997) Conservation of rice genetic resources: the role of the International Rice Genebank at IRRI. Plant Mol Biol 35:61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Owen PC (1971) The effects of temperature on the growth and development of rice. Field Crop Abstr 24:1–8Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Virmani SS, Sharma HL (1993) Manual for hybrid rice seed production. IRRI, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Collard BCY, Iftekharuddaula K, Thomson MJ, Pamplona A, Mackill DJ (2008) An electronic manual on marker assisted backcrossing in rice: theory and applications, 1st edn. Available at http://mcclintock.generationcp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=92&Itemid=114

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rice Research Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural CenterCrowleyUSA

Personalised recommendations