Breast Cancer Diagnostics Using Microfluidic Multiplexed Immunohistochemistry
A quantitative, reproducible, fast and inexpensive multiplexed immunohistochemistry (IHC) system might play a locomotive role in drug screening and personalized medicine. Currently, fully automated IHC machines and sequential multiplexed IHC methods based upon multiple color reagents have been developed, with the evolution of such methods having revealed novel biological findings over the conventional IHC method, which is time consuming and labor intensive. We describe a novel parallel multiplexed IHC method using a microfluidic multiplexed immunohistochemistry (MMIHC) device for quantitative pathological diagnosis of breast cancer. The key factors for success of parallel multiplexed IHC are the fabrication of a robust microfluidic device, the interface between the device and a tissue slide, and an accurate fluidic control for multiple IHC reagents. In order to apply conventional thin-section tissues into on-chip systems without any additional modification process, a tissue slide-compatible assembler was developed for optimal compatibility of conventional IHC methods. With this approach, a perfect fluid control for various solutions was demonstrated without any leakage, bubble formation or cross-contamination. The results presented in this chapter indicate that the microfluidic IHC protocol developed can provide the possibility of tailored cancer treatments as well as precise histopathological diagnosis using numerous specific biomarkers.
Key wordsBreast cancer Immunohistochemistry Microfluidics Multiplexing Pathology Quantification Tissue
This research was supported by a National Leading Research Laboratory program (grant no. 2011-0018607). We acknowledge Eun Sook Lee, Chul Hwan Kim, Soim Kwon, and Bumi Kwon for clinical application, and Taemin Kim for image analysis.
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