In Vitro Propagation of Jojoba



Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.) is a nontraditional crop in arid and semi-arid areas. Vegetative propagation can be achieved by layering, grafting, or rooting semi-hardwood cuttings, but the highest number of possible propagules is limited by the size of the plants and time of the year. Micropropagation is highly recommended strategy for obtaining jojoba elite clones. For culture initiation, single-node explants are cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with Gamborg’s vitamins (B5), 11.1 μM BA (N6-benzyl-adenine), 0.5 μM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), and 1.4 μM GA3 (gibberellic acid). Internodal and apical cuttings proliferate on MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 4.4 μM BA. Rooting is achieved on MS medium (half strength mineral salt) amended with B5 vitamins and 14.7 μM IBA during 7 days and transferred to develop in auxin-free rooting medium. Plantlets are acclimatized using a graduated humidity regime on soil: peat: perlite (5:1:1) substrate. This micropagation protocol produces large numbers of uniform plants from selected genotypes of jojoba.

Key words

Micropropagation Plant growth regulators Plant tissue culture Simmondsia chinensis 


  1. 1.
    National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation (2002) Jojoba: new crop for arid lands, new raw material for industry. National Academy Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mills D, Wenkart S, Benzioni A (1997) Micropropagation of Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 40, High-tech and micropropagation. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benzioni A, Shiloh E, Ventura M (1999) Yield parameters in young jojoba plants and their relation to actual yield in later years. Ind Crop Prod 10:85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reddy MP, Chikara J (2010) Biotechnology advances in jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). In: Ramawat KG (ed) Desert plants. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chaturvedi HC, Sharma M (1989) In vitro production of cloned plants of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) through shoot proliferation in long-term culture. Plant Sci 63:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gaber A, El-Maraghy HM, Aly MA, Rashed NA, Gamal El-Din AY (2007) Induction of somatic embryogenesis and DNA fingerprinting of jojoba. Arab J Biotechnol 10:341–354Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aly MA, Amer EA, Al-Zayadneh WA, Eldin AE (2008) Growth regulators influence the fatty acid profiles of in vitro induced jojoba somatic embryos. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 93:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hamama L, Baaziz M, Letouzé R (2001) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf tissue of jojoba. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 65:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Llorente BE, Apóstolo NM (1998) Effect of different growth regulators and genotype on in vitro propagation of jojoba. N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 26:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Prakash S, Agrawal V, Gupta SC (2003) Influence of some adjuvants on in vitro clonal propagation of male and females plants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tyagi RK, Prakash S (2004) Genotype- and sex-specific protocols for in vitro micropropagation and medium-term conservation of jojoba. Biol Plant 48:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Llorente BE, Juarez L, Apóstolo NM (2007) Exogenous trehalose affects morphogenesis in vitro of jojoba. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 89:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bashir MA, Anjum MA, Rashid H (2008) In vitro propagation of some promising genotypes of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Afr J Biotechnol 7:3878–3886Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh A, Reddy M, Patolia J (2008) An improved protocol for micropropagation of elite genotypes of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider. Biol Plantarum 52:538–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mohasseb HA, El-Bahr MK, Adam ZM, Moursy HA, Solliman ME (2009) In vitro clonal propagation of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.). Aust J Basic Appl Sci 3:3128–3136Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rout GR, Mohapatra A, Jain SM (2006) Tissue culture of ornamental pot plant: a critical review on present scenario and future prospects. Biotechnol Adv 24:531–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carletti SM, Llorente BE, Rodríguez Cáceres EA, Tandecarz J (1998) Jojoba inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense stimulates in vitro root formation. Plant Tissue Cult Biotechnol 4:165–174Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Andressen D, Manoochehri I, Carletti S, Llorente B, Tacoronte M, Vielma M (2009) Optimización de la proliferación in vitro de jojoba con la aplicación del diseño compuesto central rotable e inoculación con rizobacterias. Bioagro 21:41–48Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Debergh PC, Read PE (1991) Micropropa­gation. In: Debergh PC, Zimmerman RH (eds) Micropropagation: technology and application. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Apóstolo NM, Llorente BE (2000) Anatomy of normal and hyperhydric leaves and shoots of in vitro grown Simmondsia chinensis (link) Schn. In Vitro Cell Dev-Pl 36:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mills D, Yanqing Z, Benzioni A (2004) Improvement of jojoba shoot multiplication in vitro by ventilation. In Vitro Cell Dev-Pl 40:396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carley HE, Watson RD (1966) A new gravimetric method for estimating root-surface areas. Soil Sci 102:289–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Apóstolo NM, Brutti C, Ferrarotti SA, Llorente BE, Krymkiewicz N (2001) Stimulation of root development with cyclodextrins on jojoba shoots in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev-Pl 37:414–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hazarika BN (2003) Acclimatization of tissue-cultured plants. Curr Sci 85:1704–1712Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Preece JE, Sutter EG (1991) Acclimatization of micropropagated plant to the greenhouse and field. In: Debergh PC, Zimmerman RH (eds) Micropropagation technology and application. Kluwer Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory (CULTEV), Department of Basic SciencesNational University of LujánBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of Basic Sciences, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory (CULTEV)National University of LujánBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations