Advertisement

Malaria pp 535-547 | Cite as

Induction of Anti-Plasmodium Immunity Following Subpatent Infection with Live Erythrocytic Stages and Drug Cure

  • Danielle I. Stanisic
  • Michael F. GoodEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 923)

Abstract

An effective malaria vaccine remains an important priority for the millions of people living in malaria endemic regions. Subambitious goals for the development of a vaccine have been set, which aim to achieve a licensed first-generation P. falciparum malaria vaccine with more than 50% protective efficacy against severe disease and death, lasting for at least 1 year by 2015. These goals were set in the context of a subunit vaccine. However, a whole-parasite vaccine might be expected to induce substantially superior protection. Our group has been focusing on low dose blood-stage parasites as a valid vaccine approach, and we present here the relevant methodology for this.

Key words

Malaria Low dose Subpatent Cellular immunity Vaccine Blood stage 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions from Professor Allan Saul and Dr Qin Cheng for Subheading 3.1.

References

  1. 1.
    Clyde DF (1975) Immunization of man against falciparum and vivax malaria by use of attenuated sporozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24:397–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clyde DF et al (1973) Immunization of man against sporozite-induced falciparum malaria. Am J Med Sci 266:169–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pombo DJ et al (2002) Immunity to malaria after administration of ultra-low doses of red cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Lancet 360:610–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kemp DJ et al (1983) Expression of Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens in Escherichia coli: detection with antibodies from immune humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:3787–3791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ellis J et al (1983) Cloning and expression in E. coli of the malarial sporozoite surface antigen gene from Plasmodium knowlesi. Nature 302:536–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Trager W, Jensen J (1976) Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science 193:673–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roestenberg M et al (2009) Protection against a malaria challenge by sporozoite inoculation. N Engl J Med 361:468–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elliott SR et al (2005) Heterologous immunity in the absence of variant-specific antibodies after exposure to subpatent infection with blood-stage malaria. Infect Immun 73:2478–2485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pinzon-Charry A et al (2010) Low doses of killed parasite in CpG elicit vigorous CD4+ T cell responses against blood-stage malaria in mice. J Clin Invest 120:2967–2978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xu H et al (2002) The mechanism and significance of deletion of parasite-specific CD4(+) T cells in malaria infection. J Exp Med 195:881–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hirunpetcharat C, Good MF (1998) Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-specific CD4+ T cells adoptively transferred into recipient mice after challenge with homologous parasite. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:1715–1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Good MF et al (2005) Development and regulation of cell-mediated immune responses to the blood stages of malaria: implications for vaccine research. Annu Rev Immunol 23:69–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Good MF et al (2004) The immunological challenge to developing a vaccine to the blood stages of malaria parasites. Immunol Rev 201:254–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Good MF (2011) Our impasse in developing a malaria vaccine. Cell Mol Life Sci 68:1105–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Butterworth AS et al (2011) An improved method for undertaking limiting dilution assays for in vitro cloning of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Malar J 10:95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Collins WE, Jeffery GM (1999) A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum: development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:4–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collins WE, Jeffery GM (1999) A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum in patients previously infected with heterologous species of Plasmodium: effect on development of parasitologic and clinical immunity. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:36–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Collins WE, Jeffery GM (1999) A retrospective examination of secondary sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum: development of parasitologic and clinical immunity following secondary infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:20–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cheng Q et al (1997) Measurement of Plasmodium falciparum growth rates in vivo: a test of malaria vaccines. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57:495–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rockett RJ et al (2011) A real-time, quantitative PCR method using hydrolysis probes for the monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum load in experimentally infected human volunteers. Malar J 10:48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Glycomics InstituteGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

Personalised recommendations