Malaria pp 429-443 | Cite as

Quantitative Analysis of Plasmodium berghei Liver Stages by Bioluminescence Imaging

  • Takeshi Annoura
  • Séverine Chevalley
  • Chris J. JanseEmail author
  • Blandine Franke-Fayard
  • Shahid M. Khan
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 923)


We describe simple and sensitive in vitro and in vivo assays to analyze Plasmodium liver stage development using transgenic P. berghei parasites (PbGFP-Luccon), which express the bioluminescent reporter protein, luciferase. In these assays, parasite development in hepatocytes is visualized and quantified by real-time bioluminescence imaging both in culture and in live mice. We also describe quantification of in vitro liver-stage development by measuring luminescence using a microplate reader. Reporter-parasite based quantification of liver-stage development is faster and correlates very well with established quantitative RT-PCR methods currently used to assess parasite development inside hepatocytes, both in live mice and in culture.

Key words

Malaria Plasmodium berghei Sporozoites Preerythrocytic stages Liver Hepatocytes Luciferase Luminescence In vivo imaging Drug screening Mice 



TA, SC, and SMK received financial support of Top Institute Pharma (The Netherlands) project: T4-102.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takeshi Annoura
    • 1
  • Séverine Chevalley
    • 1
  • Chris J. Janse
    • 1
    Email author
  • Blandine Franke-Fayard
    • 1
  • Shahid M. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands

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