Using 32-Cell Stage Xenopus Embryos to Probe PCP Signaling

  • Hyun-Shik LeeEmail author
  • Sergei Y. Sokol
  • Sally A. Moody
  • Ira O. Daar
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 839)


Use of loss-of function (via antisense Morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs)) or over-expression of proteins in epithelial cells during early embryogenesis of Xenopus embryos, can be a powerful tool to understand how signaling molecules can affect developmental events. The techniques described here are useful for examining the roles of proteins in cell–cell adhesion, and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in cell movement. We describe how to target specific regions within the embryos by injecting an RNA encoding a tracer molecule along with RNA encoding your protein of interest or an antisense MO to knock-down a particular protein within a specific blastomere of the embryo. Effects on cell–cell adhesion, cell movement, and endogenous or exogenous protein localization can be assessed at later stages in specific targeted tissues using fluorescent microscopy and immunolocalization.

Key words

Planar cell polarity Xenopus Immunofluorescence Blastomeres Cell movement 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun-Shik Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sergei Y. Sokol
    • 2
  • Sally A. Moody
    • 3
  • Ira O. Daar
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Life Sciences, College of Natural SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Developmental and Regenerative BiologyMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy and Regenerative BiologyThe George Washington University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.Laboratory of Cell and Developmental SignalingNational Cancer Institute-FrederickFrederickUSA

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