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Regulation of the Transcription of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Genes

  • Cheol Kyu HwangEmail author
  • Ping-Yee Law
  • Li-Na Wei
  • Horace H. Loh
Protocol
Part of the Neuromethods book series (NM, volume 60)

Abstract

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) participate in a variety of physiological functions and are major targets of pharmaceutical drugs. More than 600 GPCRs have been identified in the human genome. Although GPCRs are expressed in multiple tissues and individual tissues express multiple GPCRs, many have exclusive or increased expression within the central nervous system (CNS). These unique and diverse expression patterns raise fundamental questions as to the molecular mechanisms underlying the tissue/cell-specific distribution of GPCRs as well as the means by which their expression is altered in response to stimuli. Gene expression in mammals involves both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the transcriptional regulation of GPCRs and discuss both established and emerging techniques to study transcriptional regulation.

Key words

ChIP-on-chip Chromatin immunoprecipitation Electrophoretic mobility shift assay Epigenetic G protein-coupled receptor Gene expression Histone 

Abbreviations

ChIP

Chromatin immunoprecipitation

CpG

Cytosine–phosphate–guanine

DMS

Dimethyl sulfate

DNMT

DNA methyltransferase

DRRF

Dopamine receptor regulating factor

dsRNA

Double-stranded RNA

EMSA

Electrophoretic mobility shift assay

GPCRs

G protein-coupled receptors

LM-PCR

Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction

MNase

Micrococcal nuclease

MOR

μ Opioid receptor

qPCR

Quantitative PCR

ReChIP

Reciprocal ChIP

RNAi

RNA interference

RT-PCR

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

siRNAs

Small interfering RNAs

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NIH Grants DA000564, DA001583, DA011806, K05-DA070554 (HHL), DA011190, DA013926 (LW), and by the A&F Stark Fund of the Minnesota Medical Foundation. We thank Dr. Martin Winer and Mr. Bradley J. Stish for editorial assistance with the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheol Kyu Hwang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ping-Yee Law
  • Li-Na Wei
  • Horace H. Loh
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Minnesota Medical SchoolMinneapolisUSA

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