Antisense Oligo-Mediated Multiple Exon Skipping in a Dog Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

  • Toshifumi Yokota
  • Eric Hoffman
  • Shin’ichi Takeda
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 709)


Exon skipping is currently one of the most promising molecular therapies for Duchenne muscular ­dystrophy (DMD). We have recently developed multiple exon skipping targeting exons 6 and 8 in ­dystrophin mRNA of canine X-linked muscular dystrophy (CXMD), an animal model of DMD, which exhibits severe dystrophic phenotype in skeletal muscles and cardiac muscle. We have induced efficient exon skipping both in vitro and in vivo by using cocktail antisense 2’O-methyl oligonucleotides (2’OMePS) and cocktail phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (morpholinos, or PMOs) and ameliorated phenotype of dystrophic dogs by systemic injections. The multiple exon skipping (double exon skipping) shown here provides the prospect of choosing deletions that optimize the functionality of the truncated dystrophin protein for DMD patients by using a common cocktail that could be validated as a single drug and also potentially applicable for more than 90% of DMD patients.

Key words

Multiple exon skipping Morpholinos (phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers) O-methylated antisense oligomers (phosphorothioate) Dystrophic dogs (canine X-linked muscular dystrophy) Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophies 



Authors thank Drs. Terence Partridge, Stephanie Duguez (Children’s National Medical Center, Washington DC), Masanori Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Takashi Saito, Katsutoshi Yuasa, Naoko Yugeta, Sachiko Ohshima, Jin-Hong Shin, Michiko Wada, Kazuhiro Fukushima, Satoru Masuda, Kazue Kinoshita, Hideki Kita, Shin-ichi Ichikawa, Yumiko Yahata, Takayuki Nakayama, Akinori Nakamura (National Institute of Neuroscience, Tokyo, Japan), Adam Rabinowitz, and Jonathan Beauchamp (Imperial College, London, UK), Qi-long Lu (Carolinas Medical Center) for discussions and technical assistance. This work was supported by the Foundation to Eradicate Duchenne, the Department of Defense CDMRP program, the Jain Foundation, the Crystal Ball of Virginia Beach (Muscular Dystrophy Association USA), the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, the NIH Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Research Centers, and the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan (Research on Nervous and Mental Disorders, 16B-2, 19A-7; Health and Labor Sciences, Research Grants for Translation Research, H19-translational research-003, Health Sciences Research Grants Research on Psychiatry and Neurological Disease and Mental Health, H18-kokoro-019).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshifumi Yokota
    • 1
  • Eric Hoffman
    • 1
  • Shin’ichi Takeda
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Center for Genetic MedicineChildren’s National Medical CenterWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of NeuroscienceNational Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP)TokyoJapan

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