Electroporation of Plasmid DNA to Swine Muscle

  • Angela M. Bodles-Brakhop
  • Ruxandra Draghia-Akli
  • Kate Broderick
  • Amir S. KhanEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 709)


For plasmid-mediated gene therapy applications, a major limitation to scale up from rodents to large animals is the low expression level of injected plasmid DNA. The electroporation technique, which results in the passage of foreign material through the cell membrane, is one method that has been shown to be effective at improving local plasmid uptake and consequently, expression levels. Previous studies have determined that optimized electroporation parameters (such as electric field intensity, number of pulses, lag time between plasmid injections and electroporations, and optimal plasmid formulation conditions) are dependent on the target muscle type and individual species. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to optimize conditions for the successful intramuscular electroporation of plasmid DNA to swine, a large animal model. Our results suggest that the technique is safe and effective for veterinary applications. Furthermore, these results provide evidence for the feasibility of upcoming human applications.

Key words

Electroporation Gene therapy Muscle Plasmid DNA Swine 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Patricia Brown for her help as an attending veterinarian to oversee the animal anesthesia and perform the electroporation animal procedures. This work was supported by Inovio Pharmaceuticals (Blue Bell, PA).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela M. Bodles-Brakhop
    • 1
  • Ruxandra Draghia-Akli
    • 1
  • Kate Broderick
    • 1
  • Amir S. Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Inovio Biomedical CorporationThe WoodlandsUSA

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