Advertisement

Nitric Oxide pp 187-195 | Cite as

Nitric Oxide Releasing Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization

  • George HanEmail author
  • Adam J. Friedman
  • Joel M. Friedman
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 704)

Abstract

While the potential applications of nitric oxide for both understanding human physiology and treating disease are far reaching, the development of a reliable, cost-effective, and practical sustained delivery system for nitric oxide has yet to emerge. Using a sol–gel/glass hybrid system, we have demonstrated controlled, sustained release of nitric oxide from a stable, dry powder. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, the material begins releasing therapeutic levels of nitric oxide over several hours to days, making it an ideal material for evaluation of nitric oxide efficacy for both clinical and research applications.

Key words

Nitric oxide sol–gel nanoparticles chitosan sustained release 

References

  1. 1.
    Palmer, R. M. J., Ferrige, A. G., Moncada, S. (1987) Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327, 524–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murad, F. (1998) Nitric oxide signaling: would you believe that a simple free radical could be a second messenger, autacoid, paracrine substance, neurotransmitter, and hormone? Recent Prog Horm Res 53, 43–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bogdan, C. (2001) Nitric oxide and the immune response. Nat Immunol 2, 907–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Malen, P. L., Chapman, P. F. (1997) Nitric oxide facilitates long-term potentiation, but not long-term depression. J Neurosci 17, 2645–2651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Northington, B. F. J., Tobin, J. R., Harris, A. P., Traystman, R. J., Koehler, R. C. (1997) Developmental and regional differences in nitric oxide synthase activity and blood flow in the sheep brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17, 109–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Verge, V. M. K., Xu, Z., Xu, X. J., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z., Hokfelt, T. (1992) Marked increase in nitric oxide synthase mRNA in rat dorsal root ganglia after peripheral axotomy: in situ hybridization and functional studies. PNAS 89, 11617–11621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Browne, S. E., Ferrante, R. J., Beal, M. F. (1999) Oxidative stress in Huntington’s disease. Brain Pathol 9, 147–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vodovotz, Y., Lucia, M. S., Flanders, K. C., Chesler, L., Xie, Q. W., Smith, T. W., et al. 1(1996) Inducible nitric oxide synthase in tangle-bearing neurons of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. J Exp Med 184, 1425–1433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friedman, A. J., Han, G., Navati, M. S., Chacko, M., Gunther, L., Alfieri, A., Friedman, J. M. (2008) Sustained release nitric oxide releasing nanoparticles: characterization of a novel delivery platform based on nitrite containing hydrogel/glass composites. Nitric Oxide 19, 12–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martinez, L. R., Han, G., Chacko, M., Mihu, M. R., Jacobson, M., et al. (2009) Antimicrobial and healing efficacy of sustained release nitric oxide nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. J Invest Dermatol 129, 2463–2469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Han, G., Tar, M., Kuppam, D. S., Friedman, A., Melman, A., Friedman, J., et al. (2010) Nanoparticles as a novel delivery vehicle for therapeutics targeting erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med 7, 224–233.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kojima, H., Nakatsubo, N., Kikuchi, K., Kawaraha, S., Kirino, Y., Nagoshi, H., et al. (1998) Detection and imaging of nitric oxide with novel fluorescent indicators: diaminofluoresceins. Anal Chem 70, 2446–2453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Han
    • 1
    Email author
  • Adam J. Friedman
    • 2
  • Joel M. Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsAlbert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva UniversityBronxUSA
  2. 2.Division of Dermatology, Department of Physiology and BiophysicsAlbert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva UniversityBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations