Mesenchymal Stem Cell Assays and Applications

  • Mohan C. Vemuri
  • Lucas G. Chase
  • Mahendra S. Rao
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 698)


Research on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is progressing with increasing popularity. Currently there are a significant number of clinical trials exploring the use of MSCs for the treatment of various diseases including graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone defects, diabetes, and wound repair (www.­ At the same time, there are questions associated with MSCs in terms of their isolation, culture expansion, phenotype, multipotential differentiation, and transplantation efficiency. This chapter outlines the current status of the field and emphasizes the need for clearly defined protocols to better define the function and use of MSCs in cell therapy.

Key words

MSC Stem cell Self renewal Differentiation Immunophenotype Adipocyte Osteocyte Chondrocyte 


  1. 1.
    Prockop, D.J., Repair of tissues by adult stem/progenitor cells (MSCs): controversies, myths, and changing paradigms. Mol Ther, 2009. 17(6): 939–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Friedenstein, A.J., R.K. Chailakhjan, and K.S. Lalykina, The development of fibroblast colonies in monolayer cultures of guinea-pig bone marrow and spleen cells. Cell Tissue Kinet, 1970. 3(4): 393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dexter, T.M., T.D. Allen, and L.G. Lajtha, Conditions controlling the proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. J Cell Physiol, 1977. 91(3): 335–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caplan, A.I., Mesenchymal stem cells. J Orthop Res, 1991. 9(5): 641–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dominici, M., et al., Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy, 2006. 8(4): 315–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Horwitz, E.M., et al., Clarification of the nomenclature for MSC: The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy, 2005. 7(5): 393–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bianco, P., P.G. Robey, and P.J. Simmons, Mesenchymal stem cells: revisiting history, concepts, and assays. Cell Stem Cell, 2008. 2(4): 313–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meirelles Lda, S. and N.B. Nardi, Methodology, biology and clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells. Front Biosci, 2009. 14: 4281–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kern, S., et al., Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue. Stem Cells, 2006. 24(5): 1294–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bieback, K., et al., Comparing mesenchymal stromal cells from different human tissues: bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood. Biomed Mater Eng, 2008. 18(1 Suppl): S71–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bernardo, M.E., F. Locatelli, and W.E. Fibbe, Mesenchymal stromal cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2009. 1176: 101–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bianco, P., et al., Postnatal skeletal stem cells. Methods Enzymol, 2006. 419: 117–48.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gronthos, S., et al., Stem cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells. J Dent Res, 2002. 81(8): 531–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verfaillie, C.M., Bony endothelium: tumor-mediated transdifferentiation? Cancer Cell, 2008. 14(3): 193–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Augello, A. and C. De Bari, The regulation of differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. Human Gene Ther, 2010. 10: 1226–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xiao, Y., et al., Stem cell related gene expression in clonal populations of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow. Tissue Eng Part A, 2010. 16(2): 749–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hao, M., et al., [Study of influence of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on CD34+ cells in vivo homing in NOD/SCID]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, 2009. 30(2): 103–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Noort, W.A., et al., Mesenchymal stromal cells to treat cardiovascular disease: strategies to improve survival and therapeutic results. Panminerva Med, 2010. 52(1): 27–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohan C. Vemuri
    • 1
  • Lucas G. Chase
  • Mahendra S. Rao
  1. 1.Stem Cells and Regenerative MedicineLife TechnologiesFrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations