Internalization of Nucleoside Phosphates into Live Cells by Complex Formation with Different CPPs and JBS-Nucleoducin

  • Franziska Mussbach
  • Regina Pietrucha
  • Buerk Schaefer
  • Siegmund Reissmann
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 683)


Nucleoside phosphates can bind to many functional proteins like G-proteins or other GTP-binding proteins in signal transduction or translation processes. Till now internalization of nucleoside phosphates into live cells remains a challenge. We study the internalization of a fluorescent-labelled deoxyuridine triphosphate into HeLa cells and other adhesion and suspension cells. We use different cell-penetrating peptides and a cocktail suitable for formation of non-covalent complexes with the nucleotide. Internalization is observed by fluorescence microscopy, and the uptake efficiency is quantitatively estimated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The applied concentrations of CPPs and the cocktail were checked on cell viability (MTT test) and membrane integrity (bioluminescence test with peptidyl-luciferin), indicating that the CPPs and the complexes with the nucleotide are cytotoxic above certain concentrations. These concentrations depend on CPP and cell type and are the limiting factors for the cargo uptake.

Key words

CPPs forming non-covalent complexes Internalization of nucleoside phosphates Cargo amount per cell Optimization of internalization Wash procedures Highest non-toxic concentrations of CPPs and JBS-Nucleoducin Adhesion and suspension cell lines Viability Membrane integrity 



The authors would like to thank for helpful and kind support Prof. Hans Agricola for fluorescence microscopy, Dr. Eckhard Birckner for fluorescence spectroscopy, Prof. Thorsten Heinzel, Dr. Enrico Jandt, and Sigrid Reichardt for microscopical investigations and the bioluminescence test.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franziska Mussbach
    • 1
  • Regina Pietrucha
    • 2
  • Buerk Schaefer
    • 2
  • Siegmund Reissmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Biology and PharmacyFriedrich-Schiller-UniversityJenaGermany
  2. 2.Jena BioscienceJenaGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Biology and Pharmacy, Institute of Biochemistry and BiophysicsFriedrich-Schiller-UniversityJenaGermany

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