Penetratin Story: An Overview

  • Edmond Dupont
  • Alain Prochiantz
  • Alain JoliotEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 683)


Cell-penetrating peptides are short, often hydrophilic peptides that get access to the intracellular milieu. They have aroused great interest both in academic and applied research. First, cellular internalization of CPPs often involves the crossing of a biological membrane (plasma or vesicular), thus challenging the view of the nonpermeability of these structures to large hydrophilic molecules. Secondly, CPPs can drive the internalization of hydrophilic cargoes into cells, a rate-limiting step in the development of many therapeutic substances. Interestingly, the two mostly used CPPs, TAT and Penetratin peptides, are derived from natural proteins, HIV Tat and Antennapedia homeoprotein, respectively. The identification of the Penetratin peptide, summarized in this review, is intimately linked to the study of its parental natural protein.

Key words

Penetratin Cell-penetrating peptide Homeodomain Homeoprotein 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Homeoprotein Cell BiologyEcole normale supérieure and Collège de FranceParisFrance
  2. 2.Chaire des processus morphogénétiquesEcole normale supérieure and Collège de FranceParisFrance
  3. 3.Ecole Normale SupérieureParisFrance

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