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Fine-Tuning Antitumor Responses Through the Control of Galectin–Glycan Interactions: An Overview

  • Mariana Salatino
  • Gabriel A. RabinovichEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 677)

Abstract

In recent years, we have witnessed critical advances in genomics and proteomics which contributed to delineate the “tumor progression signature”. This includes the altered expression of genes and proteins not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor-associated stromal, endothelial, and immune cells. Adding more complexity to this bewildering information, efforts are being made to define the “glycosylation signature” of the tumor microenvironment, which results from the abnormal expression and activity of glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and enzyme chaperons. The multiple combinatorial possibilities of glycan structures expressed by neoplastic versus normal tissue provide enormous potential for information display and expand potential therapeutic opportunities. The responsibility of deciphering the biological information encoded by the tumor-associated glycome is partially assigned, to distinct families of endogenous glycan-binding proteins or lectins, whose expression and function are regulated in cancerous tissues. Galectins, a family of evolutionarily conserved glycan-binding proteins, can control tumor progression by directly influencing tumor growth or by modulating cell migration, angiogenesis, and tumor–immune escape. In this review, we will highlight recent findings on how galectin–glycan lattices control the dialogue between tumor and immune cells and how these interactions could be exploited for therapeutic purposes.

Key words

Glycosylation Cancer Tumor microenvironment Tumor immunity Galectins 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We apologize to the many authors whose papers could not be cited owing to space limitations. We are grateful to D. Croci for helping in the design of figure. Work in authors’ laboratory is supported by grants from The Cancer Research Institute “Elaine R. Shephard” Award (USA), The Prostate Cancer Foundation (UK), Fundación Sales (Argentina), and Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (FONCYT, PICT 2006-603; PICT 2007-903).

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Relevant Websites

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    Consortium for Functional Glycomics (http://www.functionalglycomics.org).
  2. 111.
    The Japanese Consortium for Glycobiology and Glycotechnology (http://www.jcgg.jp).

Copyright information

© Humana Press 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Inmunopatología, Instituto de Biología y Medicina ExperimentalConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

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