Simultaneous Ultrasensitive Subpopulation Staining/Hybridization In Situ (SUSHI) in HIV-1 Disease Monitoring

  • Bruce K. PattersonEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 659)


The field of virology is undergoing a revolution as diagnostic tests and new therapies are allowing clinicians to treat, monitor, and predict outcomes of viral diseases. The majority of these techniques, however, destroy the factory of viral production and the information inherent in the reservoir – the cell. In this chapter, we describe a technique that combines cell surface immunophenotyping (to unequivocally identify cell types) and ultrasensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization (U-FISH) for HIV-1 to detect productively infected cells. Identification of virus and host (cells) allows earlier detection of changes in viral production and viral suppression but most importantly allows clinicians to monitor response to anti-viral therapy on a cell-by-cell and tissue-by-tissue basis taking into account the fact that the human body consists of very different, distinct compartments with unique selection pressures exerted on the viral life cycle.

Key words

Virus HIV Tropism T-cells Monocytes Flow cytometry Laser confocal image analysis Oligonucleotides 



The author would like to acknowledge and thank Keith Shults for his collaborative efforts and unyielding support in the development of these techniques.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyStanford University Medical SchoolStanfordUSA

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