Liposomal Reconstitution of Monotopic Integral Membrane Proteins
In spite of considerable progress in the methodology for reconstitution of membrane proteins into the liposomes, a successful reconstitution still appears to be more an art than a science. Reconstitution of membrane proteins into bilayers is required for establishing several aspects of the functions of membrane proteins and lipids and for elaborating models of naturally occurring membranes.
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 (also prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 synthase, PGHS-1 and -2) belong to the class of monotopic membrane proteins. Membrane-binding domains of both COX-1 and -2 contain four short, consecutive, amphipathic α-helices (A, B, C, and D). Crystal structures of the COXs indicate that basic, hydrophobic, and aromatic residues in the membrane-binding domain are oriented away from the protein core and form a surface on the enzyme, which has been proposed to interact with the lipid bilayer (1).
In this chapter, we describe a fast and efficient method for direct incorporation of COX-1 and -2 isozymes - as models for monotopic integral membrane proteins - into preformed liposomes containing fatty acids without loss of activity.
Key wordsMonotopic membrane protein Proteoliposomes Liposome reconstitution Direct incorporation Membrane defect Incorporating impurities into membranes Cyclooxygenase enzyme
The authors would like to thank Dr. Alicia Pastor and Mr. Robert Pcionek from Michigan State University Center for Advanced Microscopy for their help with the electron microscopy work.