Synthesis of a Virus Electrode for Measurement of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen

  • Juan E. Diaz
  • Li-Mei C. Yang
  • Jorge A. Lamboy
  • Reginald M. Penner
  • Gregory A. Weiss
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 504)


Though relatively unexploited in biosensor applications, phage display technology can provide versatile recognition scaffolds for detection of cancer markers and other analytes. This chapter details protocols for covalent attachment of viruses directly to electrodes for reagent-free detection of analytes in real-time. Customization of binding specificity leverages selections with large phage display libraries prior to covalent attachment of the selected virus to the electrode. The methods described here utilize electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to detect molecular recognition between M13 phage bound to a Au electrode and the following analytes: prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), positive and negative control antibodies (p-Ab and n-Ab, respectively). Because of a thick layer built on the Au electrode, the real impedance (Z re) increases reliably with S/N ratios upon noncovalent binding to PSMA (~14) and p-Ab (~20).


Biosensor Bacteriophage Surface modification Electrochemical impedance Electrode 



R.M.P. acknowledges funding support from the National Science Foundation (grants CHE-0111557 and CHE-0641169) and the Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society (grant 40714-AC5). G.A.W. acknowledges funding support from the NSF (grant EF-0404057). J.E.D. and J.A.L. thank the American Chemical Society (Division of Organic Chemistry) and the NIH NIGMS (Minority Supplemental Award) respectively for graduate fellowships.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan E. Diaz
    • 1
  • Li-Mei C. Yang
    • 1
  • Jorge A. Lamboy
    • 1
  • Reginald M. Penner
    • 1
  • Gregory A. Weiss
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA

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