Reactive Oxygen Species and Upregulation of NADPH Oxidases in Mechanotransduction of Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Heinrich Sauer
  • Carola Ruhe
  • Jörg P. Müller
  • Maike Schmelter
  • Rochelle D’Souza
  • Maria Wartenberg
Part of the Methods In Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 477)


Deciphering the differentiation pathway of embryonic stem (ES) cells is a challenging task not only for basic research, but also for clinicians who intend to use ES cells for cell transplantation approaches. We have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a primordial role in the differentiation of mouse ES cells toward the cardiovascular cell lineage. During differentiation, ES cells robustly generate ROS, which interfere with signaling pathways that direct cardiac and vascular commitment. Differentiating ES cells expression of Nox-1, Nox-2, and Nox-4 has been demonstrated. We have shown that mechanical strain application to embyoid bodies grown from ES cells initiates the cardiovascular differentiation program. Under these conditions, a burst of ROS generation occurs which is followed by induction of Nox-1 and Nox-4 and a feed-forward upregulation of ROS production.

Key words

Reactive oxygen species NADPH oxidase Embryonic stem cells Mechanical strain 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinrich Sauer
    • 1
  • Carola Ruhe
    • 2
  • Jörg P. Müller
    • 3
  • Maike Schmelter
    • 1
  • Rochelle D’Souza
    • 1
  • Maria Wartenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyJustus Liebig UniversityGermany
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology DivisionFriedrich Schiller UniversityGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Molecular Biology, Medical Faculty, Friedrich Schiller UniversityGermany

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