Gene Gun Delivery Systems for Cancer Vaccine Approaches
Gene-based immunization with transgenic DNA vectors expressing tumor-associated antigens (TAA), cytokines, or chemokines, alone or in combination, provides an attractive approach to increase the cytotoxic T cell immunity against various cancer diseases. With this consideration, particle-mediated or gene gun technology has been developed as a nonviral method for gene transfer into various mammalian tissues. It has been shown to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in both small and large experimental animals. A broad range of somatic cell types, including primary cultures and established cell lines, has been successfully transfected ex vivo or in vitro by gene gun technology, either as suspension or adherent cultures. Here, we show that protocols and techniques for use in gene gun-mediated transgene delivery system for skin vaccination against melanoma using tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human gp100 and reporter gene assays as experimental systems.
KeywordsDNA vaccine gene gun gp100 melanoma metastasis mouse model tumor invasion
This work was supported by a grant (No. 96-2320-B-001–008) from the National Science Council and a grant (No. 95N-1003) from the National Science and Technology Program for Agricultural Biotechnology, Taiwan.
- 4.Pertmer, T.M., Eisenbraun, M.D., McCabe, D., Prayaga, S.K., Fuller, D.H., and Haynes, J.R. (1995). Gene gun-based nucleic acid immunization: elicitation of humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses following epidermal delivery of nanogram quantities of DNA. Vaccine 13, 1427–1430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Rakhmilevich, A. L., Turner, J., Ford, M. J., McCabe, D., Sun, W. H., Sondel, P. M., et al. (1996). Gene gun-mediated skin transfection with interleukin 12 gene results in regression of established primary and metastatic murine tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad Sci USA 93, 6291–6296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Mahvi, D.M., Sondel, P.M., Yang, N.S., Albertini, M.R., Schiller, J.H., Hank, J., et al. (1997). Phase I/IB study of immunization with autologous tumor cells transfected with the GM-CSF gene by particle-mediated transfer in patients with melanoma or sarcoma. Hum. Gene Ther. 8, 875–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Cassaday, R.D., Sondel, P.M., King, D.M., Macklin, M.D., Gan, J., Warner, T.F., et al. (2007). A phase I study of immunization using particle-mediated epidermal delivery of genes for gp100 and GM-CSF into uninvolved skin of melanoma patients. Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 540–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Aravindaram, K., Yu, H.H., Lan, C.W., Wang, P.H., Chen, Y.H., Chen, H.M. et al. (2009). Transgenic expression of human gp 100 and RANTES at specific time points for suppression of melanoma. Gene Ther. (under revision).Google Scholar
- 17.Christou, P. (1994). Application to plants, in Particle Bombardment Technology for Gene Transfer (Yang, N.S. and Christou, P., eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 71–99.Google Scholar
- 18.Yang, N.S. and Ziegelhoffer, P. (1994). The particle bombardment system for mammalian gene transfer, in Particle Bombardment Technology for Gene Transfer (Yang, N.S. and Christou, P., eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 117–141.Google Scholar
- 19.Rakhmilevich, A.L., Imboden, M., Hao, Z., Macklin, M.D., Roberts, T., Wright, K.M., et al. (2001). Effective particle-mediated vaccination against mouse melanoma by coadministration of plasmid DNA encoding gp100 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 952–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Mahvi, D.M., Burkholder, J.K., Turner, J., Culp, J., Malter, J.S., Sondel, P.M., et al. (1996). Particle-mediated gene transfer of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor cDNA to tumor cells: Implications for a clinically relevant tumor vaccine. Hum. Gene Ther. 7, 1535–1543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Hogge, G.S., Burkholder, J.K., Culp, J., Albertini, M.R., Dubielzig, R.R., Yang, N.S., et al. (1999). Preclinical development of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transfected melanoma cell vaccine using established canine cell lines and normal dogs. Cancer Gene Ther. 6, 26–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar