The Leucine Zipper as a Building Block for Self-Assembled Protein Fibers
Part of the
Methods in Molecular Biology™
book series (MIMB, volume 474)
Nanostructured materials are receiving increased attention from both academia and industry. For example, the fundamental understanding of fiber formation by peptides and proteins both is of interest in itself and may lead to a range of applications. A key idea here is that the folding and subsequent supramolecular assembly of the monomers can be programmed within polypeptide chains. Thus, with an understanding of so-called sequence-to-structure relationships for these peptide assemblies, it may be possible to design novel nanostructures from the bottom up that exhibit properties determined by, but not characteristic of, their component building blocks. In this respect, the α-helical leucine zipper presents an excellent place to start in the rational design of ordered nanostructures that span several length scales. Indeed, such systems have been put forward and developed to different degrees. Despite their apparent diversity, they employ similar assembly routes that can be compiled into one basic methodology. This chapter gives examples and provides methods of what can be achieved through leucine zipper-based assembly of fibrous structures.
Key Words:Fibers α-helical leucine zipper hierarchical self-assembly nanostructures peptide design supramolecular chemistry
Zhang S. (2003) Fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self- assembly. Nat. Biotechnol.
, 1171–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryadnov MG, Woolfson DN. (2007) Self-assembling nanostructures from coiled coil peptides. In: Mirkin CA, Niemeyer CM, eds. Nanobiotechnology II.
Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; pp. 17–38.Google Scholar
Woolfson DN, Ryadnov MG. (2006) Peptide-based fibrous biomaterials: some things old, new and borrowed. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol.
, 559–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitesides GM, Boncheva M. (2002) Supramolecular chemistry and self- assembly special feature: beyond molecules: self-assembly of mesoscopic and macroscopic components. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
99, 4769–4774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairman R, Akerfeldt KS. (2005) Peptides as novel smart materials. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.
15, 453–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupas AN, Gruber M. (2005) The structure of alpha-helical coiled coils. In: Parry DAD, Squire JM, eds. Advances in Protein Chemistry
, Vol. 70. New York: Academic Press; pp. 37–38.Google Scholar
Burkhard P, Stetefeld J, Strelkov S V. (2001) Coiled coils: a highly versatile protein folding motif. Trends Cell Biol.
, 82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woolfson DN. (2005) The design of coiled-coil structures and assemblies. In: Parry DAD, Squire JM, eds. Advances in Protein Chemistry
, Vol. 70. New York: Academic Press; pp. 79–112.Google Scholar
Raman S, Machaidze G, Lustig A, Aebi U, Burkhard P. (2006) Structure-based design of peptides that self-assemble into regular polyhedral nanoparticles. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. Biol. Med.
, 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryadnov MG. (2007) A self-assembling peptide polynanoreactor. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
, 969–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryadnov MG, Ceyhan B, Niemeyer CM, Woolfson D. N. (2003) “Belt and braces”: a peptide-based linker system of de novo design. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
, 9388–9394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagner DE, Phillips CL, Ali WM, et al. (2005) Toward the development of peptide nanofilaments and nanoropes as smart materials. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
, 12656–12661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryadnov MG, Woolfson DN. (2003) Engineering the morphology of a self-assembling protein fibre. Nat. Mater.
, 329–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryadnov MG, Woolfson DN. (2003) Introducing branches into a self-assembling peptide fiber. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
, 3021–3023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryadnov MG, Woolfson DN. (2005) MaP peptides: programming the self-assembly of peptide-based mesoscopic matrices. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
, 12407–12415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryadnov MG, Woolfson DN. (2004) Fiber recruiting peptides: noncovalent decoration of an engineered protein scaffold. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
, 7454–7455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith AM, Acquah SFA, Bone N, et al. (2005) Polar assembly in a designed protein fiber. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
, 325–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimenkov Y, Dublin SN, Ni R, et al. (2006) Rational design of a reversible pH-responsive switch for peptide self-assembly. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
, 6770–6771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandya MJ, Spooner GM, Sunde M, Thorpe JR, Rodger A, Woolfson DN. (2000) Sticky-end assembly of a designed peptide fiber provides insight into protein fibrillogenesis. Biochemistry
, 8728–8734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang S. (2003) Fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly. Nat. Biotechnol.
, 1171–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitesides GM. (2006) The origins and the future of microfluidics. Nature
, 368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerasoli E, Sharpe BK, Woolfson DN. (2005) ZiCo: a peptide designed to switch folded state upon binding zinc. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
, 15008–15009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilken J, Kent SBH. (1998) Chemical protein synthesis. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.
, 412–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilsson BL, Soellner MB, Raines RT. (2005) Chemical synthesis of proteins. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.
, 91–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou M, Bentley D, Ghosh I. (2004) Helical supramolecules and fibers utilizing leucine zipper-displaying dendrimers. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
, 734–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Severin K, Lee DH, Kennan AJ, Ghadiri MR. (1997) A synthetic peptide ligase. Nature
, 706–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrmann H, Aebi U. (2004) Intermediate filaments: molecular structure, assembly mechanism, and integration into functionally distinct intracellular scaffolds. Annu. Rev. Biochem.
, 749–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Potekhin SA, Melnik TN, Popov V, et al. (2001) De novo design of fibrils made of short alpha-helical coiled coil peptides. Chem. Biol.
, 1025–1032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith AM, Banwell EF, Edwards WR, Pandya MJ, Woolfson DN. (2006) Engineering increased stability into self-assembled protein fibers. Adv. Funct. Mater.
, 1022–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimenkov Y, Conticello VP, Guo L, Thiyagarajan P. (2004) Rational design of a nanoscale helical scaffold derived from self-assembly of a dimeric coiled coil motif. Tetrahedron
, 7237–7246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aletras A, Barlos K, Gatos D, Koutsogianni S, Mamos P. (1995) Preparation of the very acid-sensitive Fmoc-Lys(Mtt)-OH. Application in the synthesis of side-chain to side-chain cyclic peptides and oligolysine cores suitable for the solid-phase assembly of MAPs and TASPs. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res.
, 488–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kates SA, Daniels SB. (1993) Automated allyl cleavage for continuous-flow synthesis of cyclic and branched peptides. Anal. Biochem.
, 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papapostolou D, Smith AM, Atkins EDT, et al. (2007) Engineering nanoscale order into a designed protein fiber. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
, 10853–10858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008