Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

  • Wendy A. Harwood*Email author
  • Mark A. Smedley
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 478)


Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.


Biolistics particle gun microprojectile bombardment barley transformation immature embryo transgenic plants 


  1. 1.
    Wan, Y. and Lemaux, P. G. (1994) Generation of large numbers of independent transformed fertile barley plants.Plant Physiol. 104, 37–48.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harwood, W. A., Ross, S. M., Cilento, P. and Snape, J. W. (2000) The effect of DNA/gold particle preparation technique, and particle bombardment device, on the transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Euphytica 111, 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yao, Q. A., Simion, E., William, M., Krochko, J. and Kasha, K. J. (1997) Biolistic transformation of haploid isolated microspores of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).Genome 40, 570–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang, S., Cho, M.-J., Koprek, T., Yun, R., Bregitzer, P. and Lemaux, P. G. (1999) Genetic transformation of commercial cultivars of oat (Avena sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using in vitro shoot meristematic cultures derived from germinating seedlings. Plant Cell Rep. 18, 959–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cho, M.-J., Jiang, W. and Lemaux, P. G. (1998) Transformation of recalcitrant barley cultivars through improvement of regenerability and decreased albinism.Plant Sci. 138, 229–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Travella, S., Ross, S. M., Harden, J., Everett, C., Snape, J. W. and Harwood, W. A. (2005) A comparison of transgenic barley lines produced by particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated techniques. Plant Cell Rep. 23, 780–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agrawal, P. K., Kohli, A., Twyman, R. M. and Christou, P. (2005) Transformation of plants with multiple cassettes generates simple transgene integration patterns and high expression levels.Mol. Breed. 16, 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harwood, W. A., Ross, S. M., Bulley, S. M., Travella, S., Busch, B., Harden, J. and Snape, J. W. (2002) Use of the firefly luciferase gene in a barley (Hordeum vulgare) transformation system. Plant Cell Rep. 21, 320–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Becker, D., Brettschneider, R. and Lorz, H. (1994) Fertile transgenic wheat from microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue.Plant J. 5, 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop GeneticsJohn Innes CentreColney, Norwich

Personalised recommendations