Advertisement

Rhythmic Conidiation in Neurospora crassa

  • Cas Kramer
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 362)

Abstract

In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa the production of asexual spores (conidia) is regulated by its circadian clock. When the fungus is grown on a thin layer of agar medium in long growth tubes (so-called “race tubes”), restricting its growth to one direction only, bright orange bands are clearly visible. This banding pattern persists with a periodicity of approx 24 h in the absence of any environmental stimuli. The bands are formed by alternating zones of nonsporulating mycelium and mycelium laden with orange conidia. Assaying Neurospora conidiation on race tubes is a simple yet powerful and versatile tool for studying the circadian clock of this model organism.

Key Words

Circadian conidia asexual sporulation filamentous fungus bread mold race tube aerial hyphae mycelium free-run entrainment phase response curve Chrono 

References

  1. 1.
    Brandt, W. H. (1953) Zonation in a prolineless strain of Neurospora. Mycologia 45, 194–208.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pittendrigh, C. S., Bruce, V. G., Rosenzweig, N. S., and Rubin, M. L. (1959) A biological clock in Neurospora. Nature 184, 169–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sargent, M. L., Briggs, W. R., and Woodward, D. O. (1966) Circadian nature of a rhythm expressed by an invertaseless strain of Neurospora crassa. Plant Physiol. 41, 1343–1349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sargent, M. L., and Briggs, W. R. (1967) The effect of light on a circadian rhythm of conidiation in Neurospora. Plant Physiol. 42, 1504–1510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feldman, J. F., and Hoyle, M. N. (1974) A direct comparison between circadian and non-circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa. Plant Physiol. 53, 928–930.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Francis, C. D., and Sargent, M. L. (1979) Effects of temperature perturbations on circadian conidiation in Neurospora. Plant Physiol. 64, 1000–1004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Loros, J. J,. and Dunlap, J. C. (2001) Circadian rhythms in Neurospora. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63, 757–794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roenneberg, T., and Merrow, M. (2001) Seasonality and photoperiodism in fungi. J. Biol. Rhythms 16, 403–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Springer, M. L. (1993) Genetic control of fungal differentiation: the three sporulation pathways of Neurospora crassa. BioEssays 15, 365–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davis, R. H. (2000) Neurospora: Contributions of a Model Organism. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ryan, F. J., Beadle, G. W., and Tatum, E. L. (1943) The tube method of measuring growth rate of Neurospora. Am. J. Bot. 30, 784–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sargent, M. L,. and Woodward, D. O. (1969) Genetic determinants of circadian rhythmicity in Neurospora. J. Bacteriol. 97, 861–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sargent, M. L., and Kaltenborn, S. H. (1972) Effects of media composition and carbon dioxide on circadian conidiation in Neurospora. Plant Physiol. 50, 171–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roenneberg, T., and Taylor, W. (2000) Automated recordings of bioluminescence with special reference to the analysis of circadian rhythms. Methods Enzymol. 305, 104–119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gooch, V., and Thoen, J. Time lapse video of Neurospora circadian conidiation rhythms. http://www.mrs.umn.edu/%7Egoochv/Circadian/circadian.html
  16. 16.
    Gooch, V. D., Freeman, L., and Lakin-Thomas, P. L. (2004) Time-lapse analysis of the circadian rhythms of conidiation and growth rate in Neurospora. J. Biol. Rhythms 19, 493–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pittendrigh, C. S. (1960) Circadian rhythms and the circadian organization of living things. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 25, 159–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kramer, C., Loros, J. J., Dunlap, J. C., and Crosthwaite, S. K. (2003) Role for antisense RNA in regulating circadian clock function in Neurospora crassa. Nature 421, 948–952.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johnson, C. H. (1999) Forty years of PRCs: what have we learned. Chronobiol. Int. 16, 711–743.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Merrow, M., Brunner, M., and Roenneberg, T. (1999) Assignment of circadian function for the Neurospora clock gene frequency. Nature 399, 584–586.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pregueiro, A. M., Price-Lloyd, N., Bell-Pedersen, D., Heintzen, C., Loros J. J., and Dunlap, J. C. (2005) Assignment of an essential role for the Neurospora frequency gene in circadian entrainment to temperature cycles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 2210–2215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vogel, H. J. (1956) A convenient growth medium for Neurospora (Medium N). Microbiol. Genet. Bull. 13, 42–43.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fries, N. (1938) Uber die Bedeutung von Wuchsstoffen für das Wachstum verschiedener Pilze. Symbolae Botan. Upsalienses 3, 1–188.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    White, B., and Woodward, D. (1995) A simple method for making disposable race tubes. http://www.fgsc.net/fgn42/white.html
  25. 25.
    Davis, R.H. and de Serres, F.J. (1970) Genetic and microbial research techniques for Neurospora crassa. Methods Enzymol. 17A, 79–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crosthwaite, S. K., and Kramer, C. (2004) Clock gene antisense RNA and circadian timing in Neurospora crassa. In: Circadian Clock in Eukaryotic Microbes (Kippert, F., ed.) Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, In press, on-line release Dec 2004 (http://www.eurekah.com).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cas Kramer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsUniversity of LeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations