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Wnt Signaling pp 131-144 | Cite as

β-Catenin-Independent Wnt Pathways: Signals, Core Proteins, and Effectors

  • Richard G. James
  • William H. Conrad
  • Randall T. Moon
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 468)

Abstract

Wnt signaling activates several distinct intracellular pathways, which are important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and polarity. Wnt proteins are secreted molecules that typically signal across the membrane via interaction with the transmembrane receptor Frizzled. Following interaction with Frizzled, the downstream effect of the most widely studied Wnt pathway is stabilization and nuclear translocation of the cytosolic protein, β-catenin. In this chapter, we discuss two β-catenin-independent branches of Wnt signaling: 1) Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP), a Wnt pathway that signals through the small GTPases, Rho and Rac, to promote changes in the actin cytoskeleton, and 2) Wnt/Ca2+, a Wnt pathway that promotes intracellular calcium transients and negatively regulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Finally, during the course of our discussion, we highlight areas that require future research.

Key words

Wnt Wnt/Ca Wnt/PCP 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RO1 GM073887-03 to RTM.

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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard G. James
    • 1
  • William H. Conrad
    • 1
  • Randall T. Moon
    • 1
  1. 1.Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pharmacology, and Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative MedicineUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

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