Skip to main content

Determining Impact of Growth Phases on Capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to Adhere to and Invade Host Cells

  • Protocol
  • First Online:
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Protocols

Part of the book series: Methods in Molecular Biology ((MIMB,volume 2069))


One of the largest concerns in public health is the continual emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. The resistance of bacterial pathogens to specific drugs presents a significant problem because it severely limits treatment options. Staphylococcus aureus is a particularly problematic pathogen that is prevalent in human and animal populations. Data on this bacterium have shown that S. aureus is capable of invading different types of host cells, suggesting that multiple mechanisms are behind its ability to thwart a host immune system and evade the toxicity of some antibiotics. S. aureus produces a myriad of cell wall-associated molecules, such as fibronectin-binding proteins, which assist in the adhesion and invasion of the bacterial cell to a host cell. Understanding the expression of these cell wall-associated molecules at different growth phases will improve general knowledge on how this bacterium can adhere to and invade a host. In our previous work, we found that different types of human MRSA isolates possess different abilities to adhere to and invade epithelial cells. In a recent study we conducted, it was found that S. aureus taken from the exponential phase of growth, when compared to S. aureus taken from the stationary phase, had a noticeable higher ability to invade host cells.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 49.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Lucero CA, Hageman J, Zell ER, Bulens S, Nadle J, Petit S et al (2009) Evaluating the potential public health impact of a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine through use of population-based surveillance for invasive methicillin-resistant S. aureus disease in the United States. Vaccine 27(37):5061–5068

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alegre ML, Chen L, David MZ, Bartman C, Boyle-Vavra S, Kumar N et al (2016) Impact of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 colonization and skin infections on systemic immune responses in humans. J Immunol 197(4):1118–1126

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. von Eiff C, Becker K, Machka K, Stammer H, Peters G (2001) Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. N Engl J Med 344:11–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Foster TJ, Höök M (1998) Surface protein adhesins of Staphylococcus aureus. Trends Microbiol 6:484–488

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Novick RP (2003) Autoinduction and signal transduction in the regulation of staphylococcal virulence. Mol Microbiol 48:1429–1449

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Liang X, Yu C, Sun J, Liu H, Landwehr C, Holmes D et al (2006) Inactivation of a two-component signal transduction system, SaeRS, eliminates adherence and attenuates virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 74:4655–4665

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Liu Y, Zhang J, Zhong D, Ji L, Yang J, Phillips J et al (2016) Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32(10):162.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Sinha B, Francois PP, Nusse O, Foti M, Hartford OM, Vaudaux P et al (1999) Fibronectin-binding protein acts as Staphylococcus aureus invasin via fibronectin bridging to integrin alpha5beta1. Cell Microbiol 1:101–117

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Agerer F, Michel A, Ohlsen K, Hauck CR et al (2003) Integrin-mediated invasion of Staphylococcus aureus into human cells requires Src family protein-tyrosine kinases. J Biol Chem 278:42524–42531

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Alexander EH, Hudson MC (2001) Factors influencing the internalization of Staphylococcus aureus and impacts on the course of infections in humans. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56:361–366

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Liang X, Ji Y (2006) Alpha-toxin interferes with integrin-mediated adhesion and internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol 8:1656–1668

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Yang J, Liang X, Ji Y (2013) The mutated staphylococcal H35A α-toxin inhibits adhesion and invasion of Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci. Virulence 4:77–81

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was partially supported by grant MIN-63-075 from CVM Research Office UMN Ag Experimental Station General Ag Research Funds.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yinduo Ji .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

About this protocol

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this protocol

Ji, N., Yang, J., Ji, Y. (2020). Determining Impact of Growth Phases on Capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to Adhere to and Invade Host Cells. In: Ji, Y. (eds) Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 2069. Humana, New York, NY.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Humana, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4939-9848-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4939-9849-4

  • eBook Packages: Springer Protocols

Publish with us

Policies and ethics