Nonsurgical Embryo Transfer Protocol for Use with the NSET™ Device
Genetically modified embryos must be transferred to a suitable female recipient for development to pups. Nonsurgical embryo transfer is a fast and efficient method used to deliver blastocyst stage embryos to the uterine horn of recipient females. The efficiency of recovery of pups after nonsurgical embryo transfer is similar to the efficiency after surgical transfer. However, nonsurgical transfer eliminates the pain and distress caused by the surgical procedure and provides a refinement in accordance with Russel and Burch’s “3Rs” (The principles of humane experimental technique. Methuen & Co., London, 1959), an ethical framework for animal research. This method is also useful for rederivation of mouse strains. Rederivation is important for either removal of potential pathogens from an incoming mouse strain after shipping, or within a facility to obtain a clean mouse colony.
Key wordsNonsurgical Embryo Embryo transfer NSET Anesthesia 3Rs Rederivation Transgenic Animal welfare
Research reported in this publication was funded by the Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, under Award Numbers 1R43RR025737-01A1, 2R44RR025737-02, and 8R44OD010958. Additional support was provided by the Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, Office of Commercialization and Innovation under the grant agreements KSTC-184-512-11-115 and 184-512-10-096 with the Kentucky Science and Technology Corporation.
- 1.Russell WMS, Burch RL (1959) The principles of humane experimental technique. Methuen & Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
- 5.de Waal E, Mak W, Calhoun S, Stein P, Ord T, Krapp C, Coutifaris C, Schultz RM, Bartolomei MS (2014) In vitro culture increases the frequency of stochastic epigenetic errors at imprinted genes in placental tissues from mouse Concepti produced through assisted reproductive technologies. Biol Reprod 90(2):22PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Woodford C (2011) Use of a non-surgical embryo transfer (NSET) device as an alternative to rodent surgical embryo transfer (ET) and caesarian re-derivation. Anim Technol Welfare 10(1):42–43Google Scholar