Embryo Transfer Surgery

  • Melissa A. LarsonEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2066)


Embryo transfer surgery is an essential step in the process of generating gene-modified mice, regardless of whether the embryos were modified by DNA, RNA CRISPR components, or embryonic stem cells, or whether they were microinjected or electroporated. Transfer is also a necessary step for assisted reproductive techniques such as rederivation and reanimation by in vitro fertilization. The manipulated embryos must be returned to the reproductive tract of a pseudopregnant recipient female mouse, wherein the transplanted embryos develop to term. Embryos may be transferred to either the oviduct or uterine horn, depending upon the developmental status of the embryos and the stage of the recipient. This chapter will describe the process of transferring embryos surgically to a recipient female.

Key words

Embryo transfer Surgery Mouse Recipient Rederivation Pseudopregnant Vasectomized male 


  1. 1.
    Gunnet JW, Freeman ME (1984) Hypothalamic regulation of mating-induced prolactin release. Effect of electrical stimulation of the medial preoptic area in conscious female rats. Neuroendo 38:12–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Osada T, Watanabe G, Sakaki Y, Takeuchi T (2001) Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is essential for the maternal recognition of pregnancy in mice. Mol Endocrinol 15(6):882–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McLaren A, Michie D (1956) Studies on the transfer of fertilized mouse eggs to uterine foster mothers 1. Factors affecting the implantation and survival of native and transferred eggs. J Exp Biol 33:394–416Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Byers SL, Wiles MV, Dunn SL, Taft RA (2012) Mouse estrous cycle identification tool and images. PLoS One 7(4):e35538. PMID: 22514749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zeller W, Meier G, Burki K, Panoussis B (1998) Adverse effects of tribromoethanol as used in the production of transgenic mice. Lab Anim 32(4):407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Transgenic and Gene-Targeting FacilityUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular and Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations