In Situ Hybridization and Immunostaining of Xenopus Brain

  • Kai-li Liu
  • Xiu-mei Wang
  • Zi-long Li
  • Ying LiuEmail author
  • Rong-qiao He
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2047)


The dynamic expression pattern analysis provides the primary information of gene function. Differences of the RNA and/or protein location will provide valuable information for gene expression regulation. Generally, in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are two main techniques to visualize the locations of gene transcripts and protein products in situ, respectively. Here we describe the protocol for the whole brain dissection, the in situ hybridization, and the immunostaining of the developing Xenopus brain sections. Additionally, we point out the modification of in situ hybridization for microRNA expression detection.


Expression pattern Brain dissection Section Immunostaining In situ hybridization Xenopus MicroRNA 



We are grateful to Federico Cremisi for sharing the protocol of in situ hybridization with cryosections. This work was supported by the NSFC No.31271387.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai-li Liu
    • 1
  • Xiu-mei Wang
    • 1
  • Zi-long Li
    • 1
  • Ying Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rong-qiao He
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of BiophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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