Using FRET-Based Fluorescent Sensors to Monitor Cytosolic and Membrane-Proximal Extracellular ATP Levels

  • Klaus E. Kaschubowski
  • Axel E. Kraft
  • Viacheslav O. Nikolaev
  • Friedrich HaagEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 2041)


The assessment of local concentrations of extracellular ATP (eATP) at the site of receptor binding remains a challenge in the field of purinergic signaling. In many cases, biosensors exploiting the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have provided useful tools to visualize local concentrations of metabolites. A series of FRET-based biosensors based on the epsilon subunits of bacterial ATP synthases have been described for the visualisation of ATP. These sensors carry ATP-sensing units with different affinities for ATP, permitting imaging of ATP under the widely different concentration conditions found in subcellular locations such as the cytoplasm and the membrane-proximal extracellular space.

Key words

FRET Microscopy FACS Live-cell imaging Biosensor Extracellular ATP 



We thank G. Dubberke for technical assistance. This study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB1328 and grant Ha2569/5).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus E. Kaschubowski
    • 1
  • Axel E. Kraft
    • 2
  • Viacheslav O. Nikolaev
    • 2
  • Friedrich Haag
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of ImmunologyUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Experimental Cardiovascular ResearchUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany

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