The Epidemiology and Biostatistics of Pneumococcus

  • Godwin OligbuEmail author
  • Norman K. Fry
  • Shamez N. Ladhani
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1968)


Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and older adults worldwide. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into national childhood immunization programs has led to large and sustained reductions in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease across all age groups. Here we describe the epidemiology and biostatistics of pneumococcal disease as well as the impact of vaccination on the burden of pneumococcal disease globally.

Key words

Streptococcus pneumoniae Invasive pneumococcal disease Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Public health Surveillance 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Godwin Oligbu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Norman K. Fry
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shamez N. Ladhani
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute for Infection and ImmunitySt. George’s, University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Immunisation and Countermeasures DivisionNational Infection Service, Public Health EnglandLondonUK
  3. 3.Respiratory and Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Reference Unit (RVPBRU)National Infection Service Laboratories, Public health EnglandLondonUK

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