Yogurt Production

  • Seiji NagaokaEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1887)


Yogurt is a popular fermented dairy product produced by lactic acid bacteria, including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. During yogurt production, these bacteria produce lactic acid, decreasing pH and causing milk protein to coagulate. Their metabolites, such as carbonyl compounds, nonvolatile or volatile acids, and exopolysaccharides, strongly affect the quality of yogurt. In this chapter, the general methods for yogurt production are summarized.

Key words

Yogurt Fermentation Lactic acid bacteria Starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Microbiological analysis Texture analysis 


  1. 1.
    Codex Alimentarius Commission (1984) Codex alimentarius: code of principles concerning milk and milk products, international standards for milk products and international individual standards for cheese. FAO/WHOGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tamime YA, Robinson KR (eds) (1999) Tamime and Robinson's Yogurt science and technology, 2nd edn. Woodhead, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bautista CS, Dahiya RS, Speck ML (1966) Identification of compounds causing symbiotic growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in milk. J Dairy Res 33:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Radke-Mitchell L, Sandine WE (1984) Associative growth and differential enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a review. J Food Prot 47:245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beshkova D, Simova E, Frengova G et al (1998) Production of flavor compounds by yogurt starter cultures. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 20:180–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ott A, Fay LB, Chaintreau A (1997) Determination and origin of the aroma impact compounds of yogurt flavor. J Agric Food Chem 45:850–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Folkenberg MD, Dejmek P, Skriver A et al (2006) Sensory and rheological screening of exopolysaccharide producing strains of bacterial yoghurt cultures. Int Dairy J 16:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Terzaghi BE, Sandine WE (1975) Improved medium for lactic streptococci and their bacteriophages. J Appl Microbiol 29:807–813Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Man JK, Rogosa M, Sharpe ME (1960) A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. J Appl Bacteriol 23:130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    International Dairy Federation/International Organization for Standardization (2004) Milk and milk products - Enumeration of colony-forming units of yeasts and/or moulds - Colony-count technique at 25 °C. ISO 6611:2004 (IDF 94:2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    International Dairy Federation/International Organization for Standardization (2001) Milk and milk products – general guidance for the preparation of test samples, initial suspensions and decimal dilutions for microbiological examinations and/or moulds. ISO 8261:2001 (IDF 122:2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003) Codex standard for fermented milks, Codex stan 243-2003Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sfakianakis P, Tzia C (2014) Conventional and innovative processing of milk for yogurt manufacture; development of texture and flavor: a review. Foods 3:176–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    International Dairy Federation/International Organization for Standardization (1991) Yogurt - determination of titratable acidity. IDF 150:1991Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    International Dairy Federation/International Organization for Standardization (2003) Yogurt—enumeration of characteristic microorganisms—colony-count technique at 37 °C. ISO 7889:2003 (IDF 117:2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Horiuchi H (2014) A new manufacture method for set yogurt with low-temperature reduced dissolved oxygen fermentation. Dissertation, Tokyo University of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Parnell-Clunies E, Kakuda Y, Smith AK (1988) Gelation profiles of yoghurt as affected by heat treatment of milk. J Dairy Sci 71:582–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Labropoulos EA, Palmer KJ, Lopez A (1981) Whey protein denaturation of UHT processed milk and its effect on rheology of yogurt. J Texture Stud 12:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fermented Milk Development Department, Food Development Laboratories, R&D DivisionMeiji Co., Ltd.HachioujiJapan

Personalised recommendations