Generation and Identification of Genetically Modified Mice for BMP Receptors
BMP signaling is critical in embryogenesis and in the development of numerous tissues. Many genetically modified (knockout and transgenic) mice have been established to study BMP function in development and disease. Mice with altered BMP receptor genes (including global knockout, conditional knockout, and conditional constitutively active transgenic mouse lines) have been particularly informative. In this chapter, we describe how the genetically modified mice were generated and introduce genotyping methods. These methods include regular PCR and genomic real-time PCR using specific primers based on different constructs in different mice strains.
Key wordsTransgenic BMP receptors Regular PCR Genomic real-time PCR Primers
We thank Drs. Ce Shi and Taocong Jin for designing probe sets for quantitative PCR. We are grateful to Dr. Kaitrin Kramer for critical reading of this manuscript. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R01DE020843 to Y.M.), International FOP Association (Y.M.), the grant-in-aid from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31500788 to J.Y.), and the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities of China (410500114 to J.Y.).
- 9.Peterson JR, Eboda O, Agarwal S et al (2014) Targeting of ALK2, a receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins, using the Cre/lox system to enhance osseous regeneration by adipose-derived stem cells. Stem Cells Transl Med 3(11):1375–1380. https://doi.org/10.5966/sctm.2014-0082 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 21.Wu M, Chen G, Li YP (2016) TGF-beta and BMP signaling in osteoblast, skeletal development, and bone formation, homeostasis and disease. Bone Res 4:16009. https://doi.org/10.1038/boneres.2016.9.eCollection CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Zhao Q, Zhao JY, Wu D et al (2012) Mutually inductive interactions between the lens and retina require ALK3 functions during mouse embryonic development. Int J Ophthalmol 5(2):119–124. https://doi.org/10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.01 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar