Skip to main content

Carotenoids: From Plants to Food and Feed Industries

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB,volume 1852)

Abstract

In this review, carotenoids from plants are described, and their natural existence is addressed. Carotenoids are 40-carbon isoprenoid molecules that produce the red, yellow, and orange pigmentation found in nature. Various plants, microalgae, bacteria, and fungi are natural sources of carotenoids and are presented in detail. The chemistry of carotenoids and their classification is also described along with the effect of carotenoids on human health which is explained with focus on lutein—zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, capsanthin, and lycopene. Clinical studies suggest that carotenoid consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and eye disease. Finally, another issue discussed is the role of carotenoids in animals and their feed with focus on birds, fish and crustaceans, livestock, and poultry.

Key words

  • Carotenoids
  • Plants
  • Food
  • Feed industry

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Protocol
USD   49.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8742-9_3
  • Chapter length: 15 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4939-8742-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1

Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more

References

  1. Kiokias S, Proestos C, Varzakas T (2016) A review of the structure, biosynthesis, absorption of carotenoids-analysis and properties of their common natural extracts. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 4(Special issue):25–37

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Rao AV, Rao LG (2007) Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacol Res 55:207–216

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Kumar Saini R, Nile SH, Park SW (2015) Carotenoids from fruits and vegetables: chemistry, analysis, occurrence, bioavailability and biological activities. Food Res Int 76:735–750

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Fernández-Garcia E et al (2012) Carotenoids bioavailability from foods: from plant pigments to efficient biological activities. Food Res Int 46:438–450

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. DSM in Animal Nutrition & Health, ‘Carophyll-because color matters

    Google Scholar 

  6. DSM in Animal Nutrition & Health, ‘Carotenoids in animal nutrition and health’

    Google Scholar 

  7. Amaya E et al (2014) Carotenoids in animal nutrition. Fefana Publication

    Google Scholar 

  8. Gong M, Bassi A (2016) Carotenoids from microalgae: a review of recent developments. Biotechnol Adv 34:1396–1412

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Echavarri-Erasum C, Johnson EA (2002) Fungal carotenoids. Appl Mycol Biotechnol 2:45–85

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Jomova K, Valko M (2013) Health protective effects of carotenoids and their interactions with other biological antioxidants. Eur J Med Chem 70:102–110

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Zakynthinos G, Varzakas T (2016) Carotenoids: from plants to food industry. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 4(Special issue):38–51

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Fasano E et al (2014) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selected two human immortalized keratinocyte lines. Biomed Res Int 2014:1–11

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Chew BP et al (1999) A comparison of the anticancer activities of dietary β-carotene, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in mice in vivo. Anticancer Res 19:1849–1853

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Li J et al (2011) An economic assessment of astaxanthin production by large scale cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnol Adv 29:568–574

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Park JS et al (2010) Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond) 7:18

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Pashkow FJ, Watumull DG, Campbell CL (2008) Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 101:S58–S68

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Manayi A et al (2015) Lutein and cataract: from bench to bedside. Crit Rev Biotechnol 8551:1–11

    Google Scholar 

  18. Granado F, Olmedilla B, Blanco I (2003) Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health. Br J Nutr 90:487–502

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Bone R, Landrum J (2003) Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary supplements raise macular pigment density and serum concentrations of these carotenoids in humans. J Nutr 133:992–998

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Cha K, Koo S, Lee D (2008) Antiproliferative effects of carotenoids extracted from Chlorella ellipsoidea and Chlorella vulgaris on human colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 56:10,521–10,526

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Vijayapadma V et al (2014) Protective effect of lutein against benzo(a)pyrene-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Toxicol Ind Health 30:284–293

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Alves-Rodrigues A, Shao A (2004) The science behind lutein. Toxicol Lett 150:57–83

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Dufossé L et al (2005) Microorganisms and microalgae as sources of pigments for food use: a scientific oddity or an industrial reality? Trends Food Sci Technol 16:389–406

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Virtamo J et al (2014) Effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality: 18-year postintervention follow-up of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Int J Cancer 135:178–185

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Shaish A et al (2006) 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil increases plasma HDL-cholesterol in fibrate-treated patients. Atherosclerosis 189:215–221

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Viuda-Martos M et al (2014) Tomato and tomato byproducts. Human health benefits of lycopene and its application to meat products: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54:1032–1049

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Srinivasan M et al (2009) Lycopene: an antioxidant and radioprotector against γ-radiation-induced cellular damages in cultured human lymphocytes. Toxicology 262:43–49

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Devasagayam TP et al (2004) Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects. J Assoc Physicians India 52:794–804

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Zhang W et al (2014) Attached cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production. Bioresour Technol 158:329–335

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Abidov M et al (2010) The effects of Xanthigen™ in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat. Diabetes Obes Metab 12:72–81

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Nanba K, Toyooka S (2006) The allelic distribution of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the PDCD5 gene locus of Japanese non-small cell lung cancer patients. Mol Med Rep 1:667–671

    Google Scholar 

  32. Jayne V et al (2015) Carotenoids and health in older people. Maturitas 80:63–68

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Esteban R et al (2015) Versatility of carotenoids: an integrated view on diversity, evolution, functional roles and environmental interactions. Environ Exp Bot 119:63–75

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Faehnrich B et al (2016) Phytogenic pigments in animal nutrition: potentials and risks. J Sci Food Agric 96:1420–1430

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. DSM in Animal Nutrition & Health, ‘β-carotene—more than a pretty color’

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

About this protocol

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this protocol

Langi, P., Kiokias, S., Varzakas, T., Proestos, C. (2018). Carotenoids: From Plants to Food and Feed Industries. In: Barreiro, C., Barredo, JL. (eds) Microbial Carotenoids. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1852. Humana Press, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8742-9_3

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8742-9_3

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Humana Press, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4939-8741-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4939-8742-9

  • eBook Packages: Springer Protocols