Dissecting Dynamic and Heterogeneous Proteasome Complexes Using In Vivo Cross-Linking-Assisted Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry

  • Xiaorong Wang
  • Lan HuangEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1844)


Protein-protein interactions are essential for protein complex formation and function. Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is the method of choice for studying protein-protein interactions at the systems level under different physiological conditions. Although effective in capturing stable protein interactions, transient, weak, and/or dynamic interactors are often lost due to extended procedures during conventional AP-MS experiments. To circumvent this problem, we have recently developed XAP (in vivo cross-linking (X)-assisted affinity purification)-MS strategy to better preserve dynamic protein complexes under native lysis conditions. In addition, we have developed XBAP (in vivo cross-linking (X)-assisted bimolecular tandem affinity purification)-MS method by incorporating XAP with bimolecular affinity purification to define dynamic and heterogeneous protein subcomplexes. Here we describe general experimental protocols of XAP- and XBAP-MS to study dynamic protein complexes and their subcomplexes, respectively. Specifically, we present their applications in capturing and identifying proteasome dynamic interactors and ubiquitin receptor (UbR)-proteasome subcomplexes.

Key words

Protein-protein interaction AP-MS XAP XBAP Dynamic interactions Proteasome complexes Ubiquitin receptor-proteasome subcomplexes 



This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants RO1GM074830 to L.H, R01GM106003 to L.H. and S. R.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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