High-Throughput Extraction and Detection of Drugs in Urine: Parallel Sampling with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) Fibers Coupled with Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) Detection

  • Frederick Li
  • Brian MusselmanEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1810)


Determination of drugs of abuse in urine is routinely accomplished by utilizing solid-phase extraction to isolate the drugs and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for their detection. Although robotic systems are employed, throughput is limited by the extraction process and GC chromatographic separation.

A method that utilizes an array of 12 solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers for simultaneous isolation of drugs of abuse from urine is provided as a means to increase productivity. A SPME probe holder that permits movement of up to 12 fibers through the various steps of the extraction process in parallel is utilized. Use of an automated stage for fiber presentation into the ionization region of a Direct Analysis in Real Time equipped LC/MS facilitates rapid interrogation of each SPME.

Key words

DART-MS Direct immersion Solid-phase microextraction Drug screening Toxicology 


  1. 1.
    Pawliszyn J (1997) Solid phase microextraction: theory and practice. Wiley–VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stenerson KK, Young T, Shirey R et al (2016) Application of SPME using an overcoated PDMS-DVB fiber to the extraction of pesticides from spaghetti sauce: method evaluation and comparison to QuEChERS. LCGC N Am 34(7):500–509Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Souza-Silva EA, Pawliszyn J (2012) Optimization of fiber coating structure enables direct immersion solid phase microextraction and high-throughput determination of complex samples. Anal Chem 84(16):6933–6938CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Souza-Silva EA, Pawliszyn J (2015) Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction with matrix-compatible fiber coating for multiresidue pesticide analysis of grapes by gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS). J Agric Food Chem 63(18):4464–4477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cody RB, Laramee JA, Durst HD (2005) Versatile new ion source for the analysis of materials in open air under ambient conditions. Anal Chem 77(8):2297–2302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jagerdeo E, Abdel-Rehim M (2009) Screening of cocaine and its metabolites in human urine samples by direct analysis in real-time source coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry after online preconcentration utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 20:891–899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    LaPointe J, Musselman B, O’Neill T, Shepard J (2015) Detection of “bath salt” synthetic cathinones and metabolites in urine via DART-MS and solid phase microextraction. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 26:159–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steiner RR, Larson RL (2009) Validation of the direct analysis in real time source for use in forensic drug screening. J Forensic Sci 54(3):617–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IonSense, Inc.SaugusUSA

Personalised recommendations