Advertisement

UPLC-Orbitrap® Screening for over 35 Drugs of Abuse and Metabolites in Biological Fluids in Under 10 min

  • Eshwar JagerdeoEmail author
  • Jason E. Schaff
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1810)

Abstract

We present a UPLC®-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric method to simultaneously screen for 19 benzodiazepines, 12 opiates, cocaine and three metabolites, and 3 “Z-drug” hypnotic sedatives in both blood and urine specimens. Sample processing consists of a high-speed, high-temperature enzymatic hydrolysis for urine samples followed by a rapid supported liquid extraction (SLE). The combination of ultrahigh-resolution chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry allows all analytes to be uniquely detected with a 10 min analytical run. Limits of detection for all target analytes are 3 ng/mL or better, with only 300 μL of specimen used for analysis. The combination of low sample volume with fast processing and analysis makes this method a suitable replacement for immunoassay screening of the targeted drug classes, while providing far superior specificity and better limits of detection than can routinely be obtained by immunoassay.

Key words

Drugs of abuse Screening procedure Orbitrap™ UPLC® LC-MS Supported liquid extraction (SLE) Benzodiazepines Opiates “Z-drug” Cocaine and metabolites 

References

  1. 1.
    Hino Y, Ojanpera I, Rasanen I, Vuri E (2003) Performance of immunoassays in screening for opiates cannabinoids and amphetamines in post-mortem blood. Forensic Sci Int 131:148–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fitzgerald R, Rexin D, Herold DA (1994) Detecting benzodiazepines: immunoassays compared with negative chemical ionization gas chromatography. Clin Chem 40:373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Milone MC (2012) Laboratory testing for prescription opioids. J Med Toxicol 8:408–416CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Segura J, Stamesi C, Redon A, Ventura M, Sanchez C, Gonzales G, San L, Montagna M (1999) Immunological screening of drugs of abuse and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric confirmation of opiates and cocaine in hair. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 724:9–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lachenneier K, Musshoff M, Madea B (2006) Determination of opiates and cocaine in hair using automated enzyme immunoassay screening methodologies followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) confirmation. Forensic Sci Int 159:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pirnay S, Ricordel I, Libong D, Bouchonnet S (2002) Sensitive method for the detection of 22 benzodiazepines by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 954:235–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gunnar T, Ariniemi K, Lillsunde P (2006) Fast gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with microscale volume sample preparation for the determination of benzodiazepines and α-hydroxy metabolites, zaleplon and zopiclone in whole blood. J Mass Spectrom 41(6):741–754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kintz P, Mangin P (1993) Determination of gestational opiate, nicotine, benzodiazepine, cocaine and amphetamine exposure by hair analysis. J Forensic Sci Soc 33:139–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gunnar T, Mykkanen S, Ariniemi K, Lillsunde P (2004) Validated semiquantitative/quantitative screening of 51 drugs in whole blood as silylated derivatives by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and gas chromatography electron capture detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 806:205–219Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peters FT (2011) Recent advances of liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry in clinical and forensic toxicology. Clin Biochem 44:54–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoja H, Marquet P, Verneuil B, Lotfi H, Penicaut B, Lachatre G (1997) Applications of liquid chromatography in analytical toxicology: a review. J Anal Toxicol 21:116–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith ML, Vorce SP, Holler JM, Shimomura E, Magluilo J, Jacobs AJ, Huestis MA (1997) Modern instrumental methods in forensic toxicology. J Anal Toxicol 31:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maurer HH (2000) Screening procedures for simultaneous detection of several drug classes used for high throughput toxicological analyses and doping control. A review. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 3(6):467–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nishikawa M, Tsuchihashi H (1998) Applications of LC/MS in forensic chemistry. J Toxicol 17:13–26Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) (1997) Standard practice for method validation in forensic toxicology. J Anal Toxicol 37:452–474Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dominguez-Romero JC, Garcia-Reyes JF, Molina-Diaz A (2011) Screening and quantitation of multiclass drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in hair by fast liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 879:2034–2042Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saleh A, Stephanson NN, Granelli I, Villen T, Beck O (2012) Evaluation of a direct high-capacity target screening approach for urine testing using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 909:6–13Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Shen B, Jiang Z, Huang Y, Zhou X (2013) Rapid screening of drugs of abuse in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution. J Chromatogr A 1302:95–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bijlsma L, Emke E, Hernandez F, de Voogt P (2013) Performance of the linear ion trap Orbitrap mass analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water. Anal Chim Acta 768:102–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal Bureau of Investigation LaboratoryQuanticoUSA

Personalised recommendations