Advertisement

Use of DART-TOF-MS for Screening Drugs of Abuse

  • Robert R. SteinerEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1810)

Abstract

Screening is an integral component of an analytical scheme to identify the presence of controlled substances in submissions to the crime laboratory. Many techniques are utilized, including color tests, thin-layer chromatography, and ultraviolet spectroscopy. While these are useful techniques to guide the examiner, all will, at best, categorize the material into a broad group of compounds. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), coupled with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, is an emerging technique that yields highly definitive screening data leading to the identity of controlled substances present in a case sample. Sample preparation is quick and simple and run times are typically only a few minutes. Collected data will allow the examiner to determine appropriate standards for confirmation, making the overall analysis much more efficient. Presented here is a guide to using this technique for the screening of case submissions for controlled substances.

Key words

Direct analysis in real time Time-of-flight Mass spectrometry Controlled substances Drug screening 

References

  1. 1.
    Cody RB, Laramee JA, Durst HD (2005) Versatile new ion source for the analysis of material in open air under ambient conditions. Anal Chem 77(8):2297–2302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fernandez FM, Cody RB, Green MD et al (2006) Characterization of solid counterfeit drug samples by desorption electrospray ionization and direct analysis in real time coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. ChemMedChem 1(7):702–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennett MJ, Steiner RR (2009) Detection of GHB in various drink matrices via AccuTOF-DART. J Forensic Sci 54(2):370–375CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steiner RR, Larson RL (2009) Validation of the direct analysis in real time source for use in forensic drug screening. J Forensic Sci 54(3):617–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Howlett SE, Steiner RR (2011) Validation of thin-layer chromatography with AccuTOF-DART detection for forensic drug analysis. J Forensic Sci 56(5):1261–1267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wood JL, Steiner RR (2011) Purification of pharmaceutical preparations using thin-layer chromatography to obtain mass spectra with direct analysis in real time and accurate mass spectrometry. Drug Test Anal 3(6):345–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Samms WC, Jiang YJ, Dixon MD, Houck SS, Mozayani A (2011) Analysis of alprazolam by DART-TOF mass spectrometry in counterfeit and routine drug identification cases. J Forensic Sci 56(4):993–998CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chernetsova ES, Morlock GE (2011) Determination of drugs and drug-like compounds in different samples with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrom Rev 30(5):875–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grange AH, Sovocool GW (2011) Detection of illicit drugs on surfaces using direct analysis in real time (DART) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 25(9):1271–1281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kawamura M, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y (2011) Simple and rapid screening for methamphetamine and 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and their metabolites in urine using direct analysis in real time (DART)-TOFMS. Yakugaku Zasshi 131(5):827–833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Musah RA, Domin MA, Cody RB et al (2012) DART-MS collision induced dissociation (CID) for structural analysis of synthetic cannabinoids. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 26(19):2335–2342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Musah RA, Domin MA, Walling MA, Shepard JRE (2012) Rapid identification of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal samples via direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 26(9):1109–1114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lesiak AD, Musah RA, Cody RB et al (2013) Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) of “bath salt” cathinone drug mixtures. Analyst 138:3424–3432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lesiak AD, Musah RA, Domin MA, Shepard JRE (2014) DART-MS as a preliminary screening method for “herbal incense”: chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids. J Forensic Sci 59(2):337–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duvivier WF, van Beek TA, Pennings EJM, Nielen MWF (2014) Rapid analysis of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 28(7):682–690CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lesiak AD, Shepard JRE (2014) Recent advances in forensic drug analysis by DART-MS. Bioanalysis 6(6):819–842CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gwak S, Almirall JR (2015) Rapid screening of 35 new psychoactive substances by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS). Drug Test Anal 7(10):884–893CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marino MA, Voyer B, Cody RB et al (2016) Rapid identification of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal incenses with DART-MS and NMR. J Forensic Sci 61(S1):S82–S91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Honggang N, Xiznjiang L, Zhendong H et al (2016) Rapid screening and determination of 11 new psychoactive substances by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 30(S1):141–146Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Virginia Department of Forensic ScienceCentral LaboratoryRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations